Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon

  • Dickson S. Nsagha | nsaghads@hotmail.com University of Buea, Cameroon.
  • Anne-Cécile Z.K. Bissek University of Yaounde, Cameroon.
  • Sarah M. Nsagha University of Buea, Cameroon.
  • Anna L. Njunda University of Buea, Cameroon.
  • Jules C.N. Assob University of Buea, Cameroon.
  • Earnest N. Tabah Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon, Cameroon.
  • Elijah A. Bamgboye University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • Alain Bankole O.O. Oyediran University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • Peter F. Nde University of Buea, Cameroon.
  • Alfred K. Njamnshi University of Yaounde, Cameroon.

Abstract

Leprosy has been eliminated as a public health problem in most countries of the world according to the WHO, but the social stigma to the disease is still very high. The present study was performed to investigate the role of social stigma as a determinant for leprosy elimination in a leprosy endemic region of Cameroon. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to investigate leprosy social stigma among lepers, their contacts and a control group consisting of patients attending a health facility for reasons other than leprosy. Informed consent was sought and gained prior to starting the study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews identified three types of stigma: lack of self-esteem, tribal stigma and complete rejection by society. From the 480 structured questionnaires administered, there were overall positive attitudes to lepers among the study population and within the divisions (P=0.0). The proportion of participants that felt sympathetic with deformed lepers was 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 74.4-81.8%] from a total of 480. Three hundred and ninety nine (83.1%) respondents indicated that they could share a meal or drink at the same table with a deformed leper (95% CI: 79.7-86.5%). Four hundred and three (83.9%) participants indicated that they could have a handshake and embrace a deformed leper (95% CI: 80.7-87.3%). A total of 85.2% (95.0% CI: 81.9-88.4%) participants affirmed that they could move with a deformed leper to the market or church. A high proportion of 71.5% (95.0% CI: 67.5%-75.5%) participants stated that they could offer a job to a deformed leper. The results indicate that Menchum division had the lowest mean score of 3.3 on positive attitudes to leprosy compared with Mezam (4.1) and Boyo (4.8) divisions. The high proportion of positive attitudes among the participants and in different divisions is a positive indicator that the elimination of leprosy social stigma is progressing in the right direction. Quantification of stigma to assess the elimination struggle is a new research area in public health.

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Author Biographies

Dickson S. Nsagha, University of Buea

Department of Public Health and Hygiene

Rank: Lecturer

Anne-Cécile Z.K. Bissek, University of Yaounde
Associate Professor,Department of Internal Medicine & Specialties (Dermatology and Neurology), Faculty of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
Sarah M. Nsagha, University of Buea
Lecturer, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Buea, Buea,  Cameroon
Anna L. Njunda, University of Buea
Senior lecturer, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea,  Cameroon
Earnest N. Tabah, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Manager, National Programme for Leprosy, Buruli Ulcer & Yaws Control, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Elijah A. Bamgboye, University of Ibadan
Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Medical Statistics and Environmental Health (Formerly Department of Preventive and Social Medicine), Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan , Ibadan, Nigeria
Alain Bankole O.O. Oyediran, University of Ibadan
Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Medical Statistics and Environmental Health (Formerly Department of Preventive and Social Medicine), Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan , Ibadan, Nigeria,
Peter F. Nde, University of Buea
Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Medicine Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea,  Cameroon
Alfred K. Njamnshi, University of Yaounde
Department of Internal Medicine & Specialties (Dermatology and Neurology), Faculty of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
Published
2011-03-03
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Original Articles
Keywords:
Leprosy, social stigma, attitudes, elimination, Cameroon
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How to Cite
Nsagha, D. S., Bissek, A.-C. Z., Nsagha, S. M., Njunda, A. L., Assob, J. C., Tabah, E. N., Bamgboye, E. A., Bankole O.O. Oyediran, A., Nde, P. F., & Njamnshi, A. K. (2011). Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 2(1), e10. https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2011.e10

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