Performance of the SD Bioline rapid diagnostic test as a good alternative to the detection of human African trypanosomiasis in Cameroon
Accepted: 25 April 2022
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
Background. Case detection is essential for the management of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Prior to parasitological confirmation, routine screening using the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) is essential. Recently, individual rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the serodiagnosis of HAT have been developed. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of SD Bioline HAT to the serological screening of human African trypanosomiasis in Cameroonian foci.
Methods. Between June 2014 and January 2015, blood samples were collected during surveys in the foci of Campo, Yokadouma, and Fontem. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of SD Bioline HAT were determined using the CATT as the gold standard for the detection of specific antibodies against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.
Results. A total of 88 samples were tested: 59.1% (n=52) in Campo, 31.8% (n=28) in Yokadouma, and 9.1% (n=8) in Fontem. There were 61.4% (n=54) males and 38.4% (n=34) females, and the average age was 35.4 19.0 years. In probed foci, the overall seroprevalence was 11.4% (95% confidence interval: 6.3-19.7) with the CATT method and 18.2% (95% confidence interval: 11.5-27.2%) with the SD Bioline HAT RDT method. The SD Bioline HAT’s Se and Sp were 80.0% and 89.7%, respectively.
Conclusions. This study demonstrated that the overall performance of the SD Bioline HAT was comparable to that of the CATT, with high specificity in the serological detection of HAT.
CDC - African Trypanosomiasis. Available from: https://bit.ly/3g0eEbq
Blum JA, Neumayr AL, Hatz CF. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;905–13. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21901632/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-011-1403-y
Stitch A, Abel PM, Krishna S. Human African trypanosomiasis. British Medical Journal 2002; 203–6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1136 /bmj.325.7357.203 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7357.203
Louis FJ, Buscher P, Lejon V. Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in 2001. Med Trop. 2001;61. Available from: https://bit.ly/3fJW0Ej
Kennedy PGE. Diagnostic and neuropathogenesis issues in human African trypanosomiasis. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:505–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.01.012
WHO. Trypanosomiasis, human African (sleeping sickness). World Health Organization. 2021. Available from: https://bit.ly/2UdzLLD
Franco JR, Cecchi G, Priotto G, et al. Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018;12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006890
Franco JR, Simarro PP, Diarra A, Jannin JG. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis. Clin Epidemiol. 2014;6:257. Available from: https://bit.ly/3SOhSNn DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S39728
CDC - African Trypanosomiasis. Diagnosis. 2019;4–5. Available from: https://bit.ly/3TcWYHx
Magnus E, Vervoort T, Van Meirvenne N. A card-agglutination test with stained trypanosomes (C.A.T.T.) for the serological diagnosis of T.b. gambiense trypanosomiasis. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1978;58:169–76.
Lejon V, Jacobs J, Simarro PP. Elimination of sleeping sickness hindered by difficult diagnosis. Bull World Health Organ. 2013;91:718. Available from: https://bit.ly/3fUIgGW DOI: https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.13.126474
Jamonneau V, Camara O, Ilboudo H, et al. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9:e0003480. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25642701/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003480
Bessell PR, Lumbala C, Lutumba P, et al. Costeffectiveness of using a rapid diagnostic test to screen for human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PLoS One. 2018;13:e0204335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204335
Kanté ST, Melachio T, Ofon E, et al. Detection of wolbachia and different trypanosome species in Glossina palpalis palpalis populations from three sleeping sickness foci of southern Cameroon. Parasites and Vectors. 2018;11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3229-2
Chappuis F, Stivanello E, Adams K,et al. Card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) end-dilution titer and cerebrospinal fluid cell count as predictors of human African trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense) among serologically suspected individuals in Southern Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004;71:313–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.313
Simo G, Mbida JAM, Eyenga VEO, et al. Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon . Parasites and Vectors. Parasit Vectors 2014;7:374. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-374
Njiokou F, Nimpaye H, Simo G, et al. Domestic animals as potential reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon. Parasite. 2010;1761–6. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20387740/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2010171061
Status of human African trypanosomiasis in the Nola-Salo-Bilolo in the Central African Republic in 2005 - PubMed. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18689315/
Chappuis F, Loutan L, Simarro P, et al. Options for field diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:133–46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.18.1.133-146.2005
Inojosa WO, Augusto I, Bisoffi Z, et al. Diagnosing human African trypanosomiasis in Angola using a card agglutination test: observational study of active and passive case finding strategies. BMJ Br Med J. 2006;332:1479. Available from: https://bit.ly/3ehx5Yo. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38859.531354.7C
Garcia A, Jamonneau V, Magnus E, et al. Follow-up of card agglutination trypanosomiasis test (CATT) positive but apparently aparasitaemic individuals in Côte d’Ivoire: evidence for a complex and heterogeneous population. Trop Med Int Health 2000;5:786–93. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11123826/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3156.2000.00623.x
Sternberg JM, Gierliński M, Biéler S, et al. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of prototype rapid tests for human african trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014;8:e3373. Available from: https://bit.ly/3rJSGfa DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003373
Bisser S, Lumbala C, Nguertoum E, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of a prototype rapid diagnostic test for the detection of trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infection: A Multi-centric Prospective Study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016;10:e0004608. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004608
Copyright (c) 2022 Andrillene Laure Deutou Wondeu, Aline Okoko, Ghyslaine Bruna Djeunang Dongho, Christan Doll, Samuel Bahebegue, Ulrich Stéphane Mpeli Mpeli, Christian Chouamou Ninko, Carla Montesano, Nicolas Félicien Dologuele, Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.