Reading between the lines: A qualitative case study of national public health institute functions and attributes in the Joint External Evaluation
Accepted: 23 July 2020
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs) are national-level institutions that can lead and coordinate a country’s public health system. The Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) considers NPHI development critical to strengthening public health systems in Africa. This paper describes how Joint External Evaluation (JEE) reports demonstrate the role NPHIs can play in supporting the goals of IHR compliance and global health security. This study is a secondary document-based qualitative analysis of JEE reports from 11 countries in the WHO AFRO region (Botswana, Ethiopia, Liberia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia). Researchers found three distinct thematic areas: i) core public health functions, ii) governance, and iii) coordination, collaboration, and communication. These themes and their interlinkages, both in pairs and all three, were of importance in displaying the roles that NPHIs could play in the strengthening of health systems. The data suggests that NPHIs, though not always explicitly mentioned in the data, may have a vital role in strengthening health systems across Africa and their governments’ goals of achieving IHR compliance.
Flahault A, Wernli D, Zylberman P, Tanner M. From global health security to global health solidarity, security and sustainability. Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94(12):863. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.16.171488
Global Health Security Agenda. About n.d. [updated 2019]. Available from: https://www.ghsagenda.org/about.
Fact sheet: the global health security agenda [press release]. July 28, 2015 2015.
Kluge H, Martin-Moreno JM, Emiroglu N, Rodier G, et al. Strengthening global health security by embedding the international health regulations requirements into national health systems. BMJ Glob Health. 2018;3(Suppl 1):e000656. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000656
World Health Organization. Joint external evaluation tool: international health regulations (2005), second edition. World Health Organization; 2018.
Binder S, Adigun L, Dusenbury C, Greenspan A, et al. National public health institutes: contributing to the public good. J Public Health Policy. 2008;29(1):3-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jphp.3200167
Koplan JP, Puska P, Jousilahti P, Cahill K, et al. Improving the world's health through national public health institutes. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83(2):154-7.
Frieden TR, Koplan JP. Stronger national public health institutes for global health. Lancet. 2010;376(9754):1721-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62007-7
Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Framework for development of national public health institutes in Africa. Africa Union.
International Association of National Public Health Institutes. Framework for the creation and development of national public health institutes. International Association of National Public Health Institutes; 2007.
Bloland P, Simone P, Burkholder B, Slutsker L, et al. The role of public health institutions in global health system strengthening efforts: the US CDC's perspective. PLoS Med. 2012;9(4):e1001199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001199
Heymann DL. NPHIs as focal points for leadership in prevention and control of infectious diseases. J Public Health Policy. 2008;29(3):374-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/jphp.2008.19
International Association of National Public Health Institutes. Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). 2007.
International Association of National Public Health Institutes. Liberia's national public health institute is 'now a legal entity'2016. Available from: http://www.ianphi.org/news/2016/nphil.html.
Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention strategic plan (2017-2021). African Union; 2017.
Barzilay EJ, Vandi H, Binder S, Udo I, et al. Use of the staged development tool for assessing, planning, and measuring progress in the development of national public health institutes. Health Secur. 2018;16(S1):S18-S24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/hs.2018.0044
World Health Organization. WHO African region: JEE mission reports [Available from: https://www.who.int/ihr/procedures/mission-reports-africa/en/.
Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. 2006;3(2):77-101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Jalma KS. Women’s friendship dissolution: a qualitative study University of Minnesota; 2008.
Syed M, Nelson SC. Guidelines for establishing reliability when coding narrative data. Emerging Adulthood. 2015;3(6). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696815587648
Kasolo F, Yoti Z, Bakyaita N, Gaturuku P, et al. IDSR as a platform for implementing IHR in African countries. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science. 2013;11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/bsp.2013.0032
Nkengasong JN, Maiyegun O, Moeti M. Establishing the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention: responding to Africa's health threats. The Lancet Global Health. 2017;5(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30025-6
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Colombia’s NPHI keeps the public healthy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2019.
Mukonka V. Zambia: a regional leader in NPHI development and emergency management2018. Available from: https://blogs.cdc.gov/global/2018/08/17/zambia-a-regional-leader-in-nphi/.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National public health institutes: leadership in emergencies 2018 [Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/stories/nphi-leadership-in-emergencies.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "A culture of responding:" training course pays off for Mozambique 2018 [Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/nphi/stories/mozambique-training-course.html