Predictors of cardiovascular diseases among people living with HIV initiated on antiretroviral therapy in Khomas region, Namibia: A cross-sectional study


Submitted: 8 August 2020
Accepted: 18 December 2021
Published: 24 May 2022
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been identified as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). However, it is evident that there is a lack of effective surveillance and monitoring of CVDs. Salient side-effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) exacerbate pre-existing co-morbidities, hence the need for CVDs and its predictors to be monitored closely to ensure life-long care. Personal health records play a crucial role in the field of health information extraction because of their factuality and reliability. The current study assessed the predictors associated with CVDs among PLHIV initiated on ART in the Khomas health district in Namibia A cross-sectional quantitative descriptive study was conducted to extract CVDs predictors from 529 patient care booklets (PCBs) between 2004 and 2018 at purposely selected health facilities in Khomas health district. Data was matched with the electronic Patient Monitoring System(ePMS) and statistical analyses were performed. The study found that prominent CVDs predictors were found to be greatly prevalent among PLHIV initiated on ART with an adjusted variation (p<0.001). The mean ± SD age of all participants was 38.10, ± range 64 and 55.1% of them were males and 44.9% were females. Data from this study suggest that high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, and alcohol use are greatly prevalent among PLHIV, particularly among males. Systems that provide accurate information, early screening with subsequent treatment for PLHIV, is recommended by this study.


Mahalie, R., Angula, P., Mitonga, K. H., & Oladimeji, O. (2022). Predictors of cardiovascular diseases among people living with HIV initiated on antiretroviral therapy in Khomas region, Namibia: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2022.1561

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