Treatment and case fatality rate of COVID-19 in Africa

Authors

  • Ben Bepouka Service of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kinshasa University Hospital, University of Kinshasa https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3063-4234
  • Patricia Bandubuila Kaja Service of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kinshasa University Hospital, University of Kinshasa
  • Hippolyte Situakibanza Service of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kinshasa University Hospital, University of Kinshasa

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2022.1931

Keywords:

treatment, case fatality, COVID 19, Africa

Abstract

In Africa, the treatment of COVID-19 depends on each country. Several protocols are observed with real results that we described in this study. The objective of this review was to describe the treatment of COVID-19 and the case fatality rate in African countries, by reviewing the literature on treatment and case fatality in African countries whose data was available through the internet during the writing period until February 7, 2021. The majority of African countries had a treatment based on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine + azithromycin, used in varying doses depending on the country. The lethality in Africa remains low compared to European and American countries. The same treatment being used in some northern countries does not fully explain the low case fatality.

Download data is not yet available.

References

WHO/2019-ncoV/clinical/2020

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Reports. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus 2019/situation reports

WHO/2019-ncoV/clinical/2020.5.

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 2020;30:269–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0

De Wit E, Feldmann F, Cronin J, et al. Prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir (GS-5734) treatment in the rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020;117:6771-76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922083117

Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Leist SR, et al. Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon-beta against MERS-CoV. Nat Commun 2020;11:222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13940-6

Yao TT, Qian JD, Zhu WY, et al. A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus-A possible reference for coronavirus disease-19 treatment option. J Med Virol 2020;92:556-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25729

Young BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S, et al. Epidemiologic Features and Clinical Course of Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA 2020;323:1488-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.3204

Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, et al. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J 2005;2:69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-2-69

Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, et al. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s diseases? Lancet Infect Dis 2003;3:722–27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00806-5

Corticosteroids for COVID-19. 2020. Available at https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Corticosteroids-2020.1

RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384:693-704. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2021436

COVID-19 case management protocol. 2020. Available at: https://www.santé.gov.ma

Preparedness and response plan for the threat of coronavirus COVID-19 infection in Algeria. 2020. Available at: https://www.santé.gov.dz

A guide for the patient suspected or affected by Covid-19 version of 25 April 2020. Available at: https://www.ineas.tn/sites/default/files/gpc_covid_19_version_25_april_2020.pdf

ECMO experts.com: COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment - Egyptian protocol

COVID-19 treatment protocol. Available at: https://www.sante.gov.mr/?lang=fr

Management of COVID-19 in Libya. Available at: https://www.theLibyaobserver.com

Interim guidelines and management of Covid in Kenya. Available at: https://www.health.go.ke

National guidelines and management of Covid-19. Available at: https://www.health.go

COVID-19 infection treatment guidelines for Rwanda. Available at: https://www.rbc.gov.rw

Burundi guidelines for Covid-19 treatment protocol. Available at: https://www.c19hub.10

Case management protocol for Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) in Ethiopia. Available at: https://www.ephi.gov.et

Management of COVID-19 in Africa. Available at: https://www.imeas.fr

COVID-19 guidelines for Ghana. Available at: https://www.moh.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/COVID-19-STG-JUNE-2020-1.pdf

Interim guidance on clinical care for patients with Covid-19 in Liberia. Available at: http://moh.gov.lr/wp-content/uploads/Interim_Guidance_for_care_of_Pts_with_Covid_19_in_Liberia.pdf

National Interim Guidelines for Clinical Management of COVID-19 in Nigeria. Available at: https://covid19.ncdc.gov.ng/media/files/National_Interim_Guidelines_for_Clinical_Management_of_COVID-19_v3.pdf

Management of COVID-19 in South Africa. Available at: https://www.nicd.ac.za/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/MANAGING-COVID19-2-FINAL_v3.35-DR-NDJEKA.pdf

Zimbabwe guideline for the management of COVID-19. Available at: https://cquin.icap.columbia.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/ZIMBABWE_COVID-19-CLINICAL-GUIDELINES-APRIL-2020.pdf

Taieb F, Mbaye KD, Tall B, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin Treatment of Hospitalized Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Senegal from March to October 2020. J Clin Med 2021;10:2954. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132954

Kayembe JMN, D Ishoso, C Mbongopasi, et al. Our experience of using Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19: an observational study from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Biomedical Research and Clinical Reviews. 2021;4:1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31579/2692-9406/065

Mitjà O, Corbacho-Monné M, Ubals M, et al. A Cluster-Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine for Prevention of Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384:417-427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2021801

Boulware DR, Pullen MF, Bangdiwala AS, et al. A Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:517-525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2016638

Cavalcanti AB, Zampieri FG, Rosa RG, et al. Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:2041-2052 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMx200021

Dubée V, Roy PM, Vielle B, et al. Hydroxychloroquine in mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27:1124-1130 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2021.03.005

Abella BS, Jolkovsky EL, Biney BT, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Hydroxychloroquine vs Placebo for Pre-exposure SARS-CoV-2 Prophylaxis Among Health Care Workers: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:195-202 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6319

Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, et al. A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1787-1799. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2008043

Njenga MK, Dawa J, Nanyingi M, et al. Why is There Low Morbidity and Mortality of COVID-19 in Africa? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103:564-569 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0474

Lawal Y. Africa's low COVID-19 mortality rate: A paradox? Int J Infect Dis. 2021;102:118-122 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.10.038

Osei SA, Biney RP, Anning AS, et al. Low incidence of COVID-19 case severity and mortality in Africa; Could malaria co-infection provide the missing link? BMC Infect Dis. 2022;22:78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07064-4

Downloads

Published

25-10-2022

How to Cite

Bepouka, B., Bandubuila Kaja, P., & Situakibanza, H. (2022). Treatment and case fatality rate of COVID-19 in Africa. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 13(3). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2022.1931

Issue

Section

Reviews

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.