Essential newborn care practices in Zambia


Published: 26 July 2022
Abstract views:
129


PDF:
139
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

Neonatal mortality remains high in Zambia and is declining slower than infant and under five mortality. Improved adoption of essential newborn care (ENC) could help mitigate this situation. To determine the adoption of ENC practices in Zambia, cross-sectional data was used to assess ENC practices including baby kept warm, umbilical cord care and breastfeeding. Chi-square was used to assess whether maternal and social demographic factors were related to ENC. Households surveyed were 12,507, which included 5,741 women with children under two years. Findings show that 95.4% of babies were dried immediately after birth, 96.5% wrapped in a cloth/blanket, 76.7% put on mother’s torso and 68.5% head covered (51.6% for all four). Eightyfive- point six percent of baby’s cords were cut with a sharp and clean instrument, 46% cord kept dry and 42.1% cord kept clean (31.2% for all three). Ninety-six-point nine percent of babies were breastfed, 89.3% were initiated within one hour and 93% exclusively breastfed for the first 3 days post-delivery (82% for all three). Babies kept warm were associated with skilled birth attendance (SBA) and province, umbilical cord care with SBA, >4 antenatal care (ANC) visits, marital status and province, and breastfeeding with >4 ANC visits, marital status and province. Early and exclusive breastfeeding is widely practiced. However, appropriate thermal and cord care practices are low. There is need for a scale-up of appropriate newborn care practices in Zambia and SBA could play an important role in this regard.


World Health Organization. Newborns: improving survival and well-being: Key Facts [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jul 21]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/newborns-reducing-mortality

Zambia Statistics Agency - ZSA, Ministry of Health - MOH, University Teaching Hospital Virology Laboratory - UTH-VL, ICF. Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2018 [Internet]. Lusaka, Zambia: ZSA, MOH, UTH-VL and ICF; 2020. Available from: https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR361/FR361.pdf

Liu L, Johnson HL, Cousens S, Perin J, Scott S, Lawn JE, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. The lancet. 2012;379(9832):2151–61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60560-1

Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Bahl R, Lawn JE, Salam RA, Paul VK, et al. Can available interventions end preventable deaths in mothers, newborn babies, and stillbirths, and at what cost? The Lancet. 2014 Jul 26;384(9940):347–70.

Seward N, Osrin D, Li L, Costello A, Pulkki-Brännström A-M, Houweling TAJ, et al. Association between Clean Delivery Kit Use, Clean Delivery Practices, and Neonatal Survival: Pooled Analysis of Data from Three Sites in South Asia. PLOS Med. 2012 Feb 28;9(2):e1001180.

Akter T, Dawson A, Sibbritt D. What impact do essential newborn care practices have on neonatal mortality in low and lower-middle income countries? Evidence from Bangladesh. J Perinatol. 2016 Mar;36(3):225–30.

Lawn JE, Blencowe H, Oza S, You D, Lee AC, Waiswa P, et al. Every Newborn: progress, priorities, and potential beyond survival. The Lancet. 2014 Jul 12;384(9938):189–205.

World Vision International. Caregiver Survey [Internet]. World Vision International; 2013 [cited 2021 Jul 23]. Available from: https://www.wvi.org/development/publication/caregiver-survey

World Vision International. Baseline Field Guide [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 Feb 15]. Available from: https://www.wvcentral.org/community/EL/Documents/Baseline_Field_Guide.pdf#search=baseline%20field%20guide

Mullany LC, Darmstadt GL, Khatry SK, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Shrestha S, et al. Topical applications of chlorhexidine to the umbilical cord for prevention of omphalitis and neonatal mortality in southern Nepal: a community-based, cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet. 2006 Mar 18;367(9514):910–8.

Sacks E, Moss WJ, Winch PJ, Thuma P, van Dijk JH, Mullany LC. Skin, thermal and umbilical cord care practices for neonates in southern, rural Zambia: a qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Dec;15(1):149.

Debes AK, Kohli A, Walker N, Edmond K, Mullany LC. Time to initiation of breastfeeding and neonatal mortality and morbidity: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2013 Sep;13(3):1–14.

Edmond KM, Zandoh C, Quigley MA, Amenga-Etego S, Owusu-Agyei S, Kirkwood BR. Delayed Breastfeeding Initiation Increases Risk of Neonatal Mortality. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar 1;117(3):e380–6.

Leung AKC, Sauve RS. Breast is best for babies. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 Jul;97(7):1010–9.

Bureau of Statistics. Lesotho Multiple Indicator Survey 2018, Survey Findings Report. 2019.

Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT). Zimbabwe 2019 Multiple Inidcator Cluster Survey (MICS) Findings Report [Internet]. Harare, Zimbabwe; [cited 2021 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/zimbabwe/media/2536/file/Zimbabwe%202019%20MICS%20Survey%20Findings%20Report-31012020_English.pdf

Buser JM, Moyer CA, Boyd CJ, Zulu D, Ngoma-Hazemba A, Mtenje JT, et al. Maternal knowledge of essential newborn care in rural Zambia. Health Care Women Int. 2021 Jul 1;42(4–6):778–93.

Saaka M, Ali F, Vuu F. Prevalence and determinants of essential newborn care practices in the Lawra District of Ghana. BMC Pediatr. 2018 May 24;18(1):173.

Tafere TE, Afework MF, Yalew AW. Does antenatal care service quality influence essential newborn care (ENC) practices? In Bahir Dar City Administration, North West Ethiopia: a prospective follow up study. Ital J Pediatr. 2018 Aug 29;44(1):105.

Waiswa P, Peterson S, Tomson G. Poor newborn care practices - a population based survey in eastern Uganda. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010 Feb 23;10(1):9.

Dimbuene ZT, Amo-Adjei J, Amugsi D, Mumah J, Izugbara CO, Beguy D. Women's education and utilisation of maternal health services in africa: a multi-country and socioeconomic status analysis. J Biosoc Sci. 2018 Nov;50(6):725–48.

Barman B, Saha J, Chouhan P. Impact of education on the utilisation of maternal health care services: An investigation from National Family Health Survey (2015–16) in India. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2020 Jan 1;108:104642.

Le K, Nguyen M. Shedding light on maternal education and child health in developing countries. World Dev. 2020 Sep 1;133:105005.

Malinga, S., Ilukena, M., Chirwa, T., & Chama-Chiliba, C. M. (2022). Essential newborn care practices in Zambia. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2022.2078

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations