Prevalence and predictor stunting, wasting and underweight in Timor Leste children under five years: An analysis of DHS data in 2016
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
Stunting, wasting, and being underweight are indicators of malnutrition in a country. The high status reflects the poor nutritional and health status of children under five. We analyzed data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Timor Leste from 2009 to 2016 to identify the prevalence and predictor stunting, wasting, and underweight. The variables analyzed were the mother’s education, mother’s age, mother BMI, mother’s height, number of ANC visits, birth weight, sex of a child, sex of head household, type of residence, wealth index, toilet facility, source of drinking water and province. The sample in this study was 3,723 toddlers. Prevalence of stunting (44.4%), underweight (37.5%) and wasting (25.3%). In the bivariate analysis, the variables statistically significantly associated with stunting, underweight, and wasting was mother’s education, sex of a child, type of residence, wealth index, and province. Improving the nutritional status of children in Timor Leste requires various nutrition and health interventions.
WHO. Guideline updates on the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children. Published online 2013. Accessed August 14, 2021. www.who.int
Bomela NJ. Social, economic, health and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in three Central Asian Republics. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(10):1871-1877. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980009004790
Chatterjee K, Sinha RK, Kundu AK, et al. Social determinants of inequities in under-nutrition (weight-for-age) among under-5 children: a cross sectional study in Gumla district of Jharkhand, India. Int J Equity Health. 2016;15(1):104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-016-0392-y
WHO. Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition: Descriptions. http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/about/introduction/en/index2.html
Miletzki J, Broten N. An Analysis of Amartya Sen’s : Development as Freedom. Dev as Free. Published online July 5, 2017:1-89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781912281275
Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA. Changes in child survival are strongly associated with changes in malnutrition in developing countries. J Nutr. 2003;133(1): 107-119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.1.107
Das JK, Salam RA, Saeed M, et al. Effectiveness of Interventions for Managing Acute Malnutrition in Children under Five Years of Age in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 1;12(1):116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010116
Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000-13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: an updated systematic analysis. Lancet. 2015 Jan 31;385(9966):430-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61698-6
Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middleincome countries. Lancet. 2013 Aug 3;382(9890):427-451. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60937-X
WHO. What is the double burden of malnutrition? Double-duty actions for nutrition Policy Brief. Published online 2016.
Provo A, Atwood S, Sullivan EB, Mbuya N. Malnutrition in Timor-Leste: A Review of the Burden, Drivers, and Potential Response. World Bank, Washington, DC. 2017. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/26394 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1596/26394
Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA, Schroeder DG, Habicht JP. A methodology for estimating the contribution of malnutrition to child mortality in developing countries. J Nutr. 1994;124(10 SUPPL.).
Menon P, Raabe K, Bhaskar A. Biological, Programmatic and Sociopolitical Dimensions of Child Undernutrition in Three States in India. IDS Bull. 2009;40(4):60-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2009.00060.x
Keino S, Plasqui G, van den Borne B. Household food insecurity access: a predictor of overweight and underweight among Kenyan women. Agric Food Secur 2014 31. 2014;3(1):1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/2048-7010-3-2
Martorell R, Young MF. Patterns of Stunting and Wasting: Potential Explanatory Factors. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(2):227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.001107
WHO. Child Growth Standards. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51(12):1002-1002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03503.x
Chowdhury MRK, Rahman MS, Khan MMH, Mondal MNI, Rahman MM, Billah B. Risk Factors for Child Malnutrition in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationwide Population-Based Survey. J Pediatr. 2016;172:194-201.e1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.01.023
Mishra K, Kumar P, Basu S, et al. Risk factors for severe acute malnutrition in children below 5 y of age in India: a case-control study. Indian J Pediatr. 2014 Aug;81(8):762-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-013-1127-3
Tariq J, Sajjad A, Zakar R, et al. Factors Associated with Undernutrition in Children under the Age of Two Years: Secondary Data Analysis Based on the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012
Copyright (c) 2022 Rifzul Maulina, Mochammad Bagus Qomaruddin, Ardhiles Wahyu Kurniawan, Anggelina Fernandes, Erni Astuti
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
PAGEPress has chosen to apply the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.