Respiratory symptoms among urban traffic policemen in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
Background: There is accumulating evidence that roadside pollution is detrimental to health. Traffic police personnel are exposed to roadside pollution due to the nature of their job and are at risk of adverse health outcomes.
Objective: This study aims to compare the risk of adverse respiratory symptoms in different categories of traffic police including traffic constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Methods: The study population consisted of 369 randomly selected traffic police personnel from the city of Chittagong in Bangladesh. Information on their occupation and respiratory health symptoms were collected. The health outcomes were coughing, coughing sputum, coughing up blood, shortness of breathing, wheezing, and chest pain
Result: The risk of coughing [adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 4.469, 95% CI=1.265-15.793], coughing sputum [AOR= 3.687, 95% CI= 1.004 -13.540], coughing up blood [AOR=1.040, 95% CI=0.227-6.162], shortness of breathing [AOR=3.937, 95% CI=1.069-14.500], wheezing [AOR= 2.464, 95% CI= 0.613-9.906] and chest pain with deep breathing [AOR=2.163,95% CI= 0.560-8.349] was higher in traffic constables compared to inspectors. In sergeants odds increased for coughing up blood [AOR=1.102, 95% CI= 0.283-4.286] and wheezing [AOR=1.260, 95% CI= 0.304-5.229].
Conclusion: There was a substantial difference in the risk of studied respiratory symptoms between different categories of traffic police jobs. Targeted occupational health interventions are recommended.
Han X, Naeher LA. Review of traffic-related air pollution exposure assessment studies in the developing world. Environ Int 2006; 32:106–20. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.020. Epub 2005 Jul 6. PMID: 16005066.
Gowda G, Thenambigai R. A Study on Respiratory Morbidities and Pulmonary Functions among Traffic Policemen in Bengaluru City. Indian J Community Med 2020; 45(1):23-26. doi: 10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_102_19. PMID: 32029979; PMCID: PMC6985951.
Ingle ST, Pachpande B, Wagh N, Patel VS, Attarde SB. Exposure to vehicular pollution and respiratory impairment of traffic policemen in Jalgaon City, India. Ind Health 2005; 43(4):656-62, DOI: 10.2486/indhealth.43.656 PMID: 16294920
Sasikumar, S, Maheshkumar, K, Dilara, K, Padmavathi R. Assessment of pulmonary functions among traffic police personnel in Chennai city - A comparative cross-sectional study. J Family Med Prim Care 2020; 9(7): 3356–3360. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1126_19. PMCID: PMC7567253 PMID: 33102296
World Health Organization. 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution. World Health Organization; 2014. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2014/air-pollution/en/ Accessed February 21, 2019
Rahman M, Mahamud S, Thurston G. Recent spatial gradients and time trends in Dhaka, Bangladesh, air pollution and their human health implications. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2019; 69(4):478-501. doi: 10.1080/10962247.2018.1548388. PMID: 30427285
Health Effects Institute. State of Global Air 2020. Special Report. Boston, MA: Health Effects Institute. Available at https://www.stateofglobalair.org/ . Accessed at November 14, 2020.
Ahmed S, Mahmood I. Air pollution kills 15,000 Bangladeshis each year: The role of public administration and governments integrity. J Pub Admin Policy Res. 2011; 3(4):129–40. Available at https://academicjournals.org/jpapr
Randall S, Sivertsen B, Ahammad, S, Cruz ND, Dam TV. Emissions Inventory for Dhaka and Chittagong of Pollutants PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SOx, and CO. January 2015. Available at http://bapman.nilu.no/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Wq46eRdToUA%3D&tabid=3331&mid=7822&language=en-US. Accessed March 16, 2019
Rouf MA, Nasiruddin M, Hossain AMS, Islam MS. Trend of ambient air quality in Chittagong City. Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res2012; 47(3):287-296. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjsir.v47i3.13062
Hasan MR, Hossain MA, Sarjana U, Hasan MR. Status of Air Quality and Survey of particulate Matter Pollution in Pabna City, Bangladesh. Am J Eng Res 2016; 5(11):18-22
Gupta S, Mittal S, Kumar A, Singh DK. Respiratory effects of air among nonsmoking traffic policemen of Patiala, India. Lung India 2011; 28(4):253-7. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.85685. PMID: 22084537; PMCID: PMC3213710.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Respiratory Medical Evaluation questionnaire. USA: US Department of Labour; 1988.
Ahmed P, Jaakkola JJ. Maternal occupation and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a Finnish population-based study. Occup Med (Lond) 2007; 57(6):417-23. DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqm038 PMID: 17566072
Satapathy D, Behera T, Tripathy R. Health status of traffic police personnel in brahmapur city. Ind J Com Med 2009; 34(1):71-2. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.45380 PMID: 19876462 PMCID: PMC2763644.
Karita K, Yano E, Tamura K, Jinsart W. Effects of working and residential location areas on air pollution related respiratory symptoms in policemen and their wives in Bangkok, Thailand. Eur J Public Health 2004; 14(1):24-6. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/14.1.24. PMID: 15080386
DeToni A, Fillon LF, Finotto L. Respiratory diseases in a group of traffic police officers: results of a 5-year follow-up. G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2005; 27(3):380-82. PMID: 16240601
Kumar M, Shaker I, Kann N. The study of frequency domine analysis of HRV in traffic police. Int J Bioassays 2012; 1: 64–7. DOI: 10.21746/ijbio.2012.10.004
Jung TH. Respiratory Diseases in Firefighters and Fire Exposers. J Korean Med Assoc 2008; 51(12):1087-1096. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5124/jkma.2008.51.12.1087.
Chean KY, Abdulrahman S, Chan MW, Tan KC. A Comparative Study of Respiratory Quality of Life among Firefighters, Traffic Police and Other Occupations in Malaysia. Int J Occup Environ Med 2019; 10(4): 203–215. DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2019.1657. PMID: 31586385 PMCID: PMC6820314
D'Amato G, Liccardi G, D'Amato M, Cazzola M. The role of outdoor air pollution and climatic changes on the rising trends in respiratory allergy. Respir Med 2001; 95(7):606-11.
Beverland IJ, Cohen GR, Heal MR, Carder M, Yap c, Robertson C. A comparison of short-term and long-term air pollution exposure associations with mortality in two cohorts in Scotland. Environ Health Perspect 2012; 120(9):1280-5. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104509. Epub 2012 Jun 6. PMID: 22674867; PMCID: PMC3440112.
D'Amato G, Cecchi L, D'Amato M. Urban air pollution and climate change as environmental risk factors of respiratory allergy: an update. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2010; 20:95–102.
Falcon-Rodriguez C, Osornio-Vargas A, Sada-Ovalle I, Suegura- Medina P. Aeroparticles, composition, and lung diseases. Front Immunol 2016; 20; 7:3. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00003. PMID: 26834745; PMCID: PMC4719080.
He F, Liao B, Pu J, Li C, Zheng M, Huang L, et al. Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter Induced COPD in a Rat Model and a Description of the Underlying Mechanism. Sci Rep 2017 Mar 31; 7: 45666. doi: 10.1038/srep45666. PMID: 28361885; PMCID: PMC5374504.
Berend, N. Contribution of air pollution to COPD and small airway dysfunction. Respirology 2016; 21(2):237-44. doi: 10.1111/resp.12644. Epub 2015 Sep 27. PMID: 26412571.
Gao ZY, Li PK, Zhao JZ, Jiang RF, Yang BJ, Zhang MH, et al. Effects of airborne fine particulate matter on human respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. Chin J Industr Hyg Occup Dis 2010; 28: 748–751. PMID: 21126426.
Proietti L, Mastruzzo C, Palermo F, Vancheri C, Lisitano N, Crimi N. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms, reduction in lung function and allergic sensitization in a group of traffic police officers exposed to urban pollution. Med Lav 2005; 96(1):24-32. Italian. PMID: 15847105.
Copyright (c) 2023 the Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.