An investigation of factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care services among women in post-natal wards in two Namibian hospitals in the Khomas region


  • Mhingana Ester Amungulu School of Nursing and Public Health, University of Namibia, Windhoek
  • Emma Maano Nghitanwa School of Nursing and Public Health, University of Namibia, Windhoek
  • Claudia Mbapaha School of Nursing and Public Health, University of Namibia, Windhoek



antenatal, care, postnatal, utilization, women


Background. Antenatal care (ANC) services are the care provided by skilled healthcare professionals to pregnant women to ensure the best health for both mother and baby during pregnancy and after delivery. In Namibia, utilization of antenatal care services has been reported to be dropping from 97% in 2013 to 91% in 2016.

Objectives. The objectives of this study were to investigate the factors affecting the utilization of ANC services.

Methods. A quantitative approach and a cross-sectional analytical design were used to carry out the study. The study population was all mothers who delivered and were admitted to the postnatal ward of Intermediate Hospital Katutura and Windhoek Central Hospital during the time of the study. Data were collected from 320 participants using self-administered structured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 25 software.

Results. Participants were aged between 16 and 42 years with a mean age of 27 years. The results show that 229 (71.6%) utilized ANC while 91(28.4%) did not utilize ANC services. Factors such as the negative attitude of health care workers, long distance to and from health facilities, lack of transport money to travel to and from the health facilities, lack of knowledge regarding antenatal care, attitude towards pregnancy, and others, were found as hindrances to the utilization of antenatal care services. Participants also indicated motivators for ANC utilization such as preventing complications, knowing their HIV status, getting health education, knowing the estimated date of delivery, and identifying and treatment of medical conditions. The study reveals the higher knowledge of participants on ANC utilization, most participants have the right to make decisions and had positive attitudes toward the quality of ANC services. The level of attitude toward pregnancy was associated with the utilization of antenatal care services with an odd ratio OR=2.132; and P=0.014.

Conclusions. The study identified factors that affect utilization of ANC services such as age, marital status, mother's education, partner’s formal education, negative attitude toward health providers, long distance to and from ANC health care facilities, fear of HIV test and results, Covid-19 regulations, inability to determine the pregnancy at the earlier stages and financial constraints Based on this study findings, it is recommended that the utilization of ANC might be improved through effective community mobilization and outreach maternity services to educate and improve awareness on the importance of ANC.

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Author Biographies

Mhingana Ester Amungulu, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of Namibia, Windhoek

Mphingana Amungulu is a Registered Nurse at Katutura Intermediate Hospital. Her study interest is on maternal and child health.  She was a Master student at the University of Namibia. 

Claudia Mbapaha, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of Namibia, Windhoek

Claudia Mbapaha is a lecturer at the University of Namibia. 


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How to Cite

Amungulu, M. E., Nghitanwa, E. M., & Mbapaha, C. (2023). An investigation of factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care services among women in post-natal wards in two Namibian hospitals in the Khomas region. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 14(3).



Original Articles