Latent tuberculosis infection in family members in household contact with active tuberculosis patients in Semarang City, Central Java, Indonesia


Published: 27 July 2022
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A quarter of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), 10% of cases develop active tuberculosis (TB), and 90% have a latent TB infection. Family members of TB patients have the highest potential for latent TB infection. This study aims to identify latent TB infection and risk factors in family members within the household contacts of active TB patients. This study used a crosssectional study design with a contact tracing method. The selected subjects were 138 people from 241 total family members of 112 active TB patients. Subjects underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST), using 2 units of tuberculin (TU) purified protein derivative (PPD) 0.1 mL (PT. Bio Farma Persero, Bandung, Indonesia). Data risk factors were collected during home visits. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. A total of 63.8% (88/138) of family members of active TB patients’ household contacts had latent TB infection. The type of occupation of laborers/ farmers/fishers is the most dominant risk factor associated with latent TB infection (AOR: 7.04; 95% CI: 1.70–29.02), followed by unqualified bedroom density (<8 m2/2 people) (AOR: 5.33; 95% CI: 2.44– 12.71) and contact duration ≥5 hours/day (AOR: 4.70; 95% CI:1.33–16.66). Latent TB infection in family members of active TB patients’ household contacts was quite high. Occupation type, contact duration, and bedroom density were simultaneously confirmed as the main risk factors related to latent TB infection. Therefore, it is recommended to identify and prevent latent TB infection in family members in household contact with active TB patients.


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Karbito, K., Susanto, H., Adi, M. S., Sulistiyani, S., Handayani, O. W. K., & Sofro, M. A. U. (2022). Latent tuberculosis infection in family members in household contact with active tuberculosis patients in Semarang City, Central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2022.2157

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