Latent tuberculosis infection in family members in household contact with active tuberculosis patients in Semarang City, Central Java, Indonesia

Published: 27 July 2022
Abstract views:

Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


A quarter of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), 10% of cases develop active tuberculosis (TB), and 90% have a latent TB infection. Family members of TB patients have the highest potential for latent TB infection. This study aims to identify latent TB infection and risk factors in family members within the household contacts of active TB patients. This study used a crosssectional study design with a contact tracing method. The selected subjects were 138 people from 241 total family members of 112 active TB patients. Subjects underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST), using 2 units of tuberculin (TU) purified protein derivative (PPD) 0.1 mL (PT. Bio Farma Persero, Bandung, Indonesia). Data risk factors were collected during home visits. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. A total of 63.8% (88/138) of family members of active TB patients’ household contacts had latent TB infection. The type of occupation of laborers/ farmers/fishers is the most dominant risk factor associated with latent TB infection (AOR: 7.04; 95% CI: 1.70–29.02), followed by unqualified bedroom density (<8 m2/2 people) (AOR: 5.33; 95% CI: 2.44– 12.71) and contact duration ≥5 hours/day (AOR: 4.70; 95% CI:1.33–16.66). Latent TB infection in family members of active TB patients’ household contacts was quite high. Occupation type, contact duration, and bedroom density were simultaneously confirmed as the main risk factors related to latent TB infection. Therefore, it is recommended to identify and prevent latent TB infection in family members in household contact with active TB patients.

WHO. Global Tuberculosis Report 2020. WHO. 2020. 232 p.

Houben RMGJ, Dodd PJ. The global burden of latent tuberculosis infection: a re-estimation using mathematical modelling. PLoS Med. 2016;13(10):1–13.

Maceda EB, Goncalves CM, Andrews JR, et al. Serum vitamin D levels and risk of prevalent tuberculosis , incident tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test conversion among prisoners. Sci Rep. 2018;8(997):1–9. DOI:

Hur YG, Stolinska PG, Smith AB, et al. Combination of cytokine responses indicative of latent TB and active TB in Malawian adults. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):1–10. DOI:

Reichler MR, Khan A, Sterling TR, et al. Risk and timing of tuberculosis among close contacts of persons with infectious tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2018;218(6):1000–8. DOI:

Fox GJ, Barry SE, Britton WJ MG. Contact investigation for tuberculosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2013;41(1):140–56. DOI:

Eom JS, Kim I, Kim WY, et al. Household tuberculosis contact investigation in a tuberculosis-prevalent country. Medicine (Baltimore) [Internet]. 2018;97(3):1–6. DOI:

Chen C, Zhu T, Wang Z, et al. High latent TB infection rate and associated risk factors in the Eastern China of low TB incidence. PLoS One. 2015;1–9.

Osman SA, Saeed WSE, Musa AM, et al. Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection ( LTBI ) among House Hold Contacts of Sudanese Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan : Revisiting the Tuberculin Skin Test. J Tuberc Res. 2017;5:69–76. DOI:

Mendoza OM, Marion SA, Elwood K, et al. Risk factors for developing tuberculosis: A 12-year follow-up of contacts of tuberculosis cases. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14(9):1112–9.

Kemenkes RI. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia nomor 67 tahun 2016 tentang penanggulangan tuberkulosis. Jakarta: Sekjen Kemenkes RI; 2016. p. 163 p.

Wijaya VN. Infeksi tuberkulosis laten-diagnosis dan tatalaksana. Cermin Dunia Kedokt [Internet]. 2017;44(10):706–9.

Sharma SK, Vashishtha R, Chauhan LS, et al. Comparison of TST and IGRA in diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in a high TB-burden setting. PLoS Med. 2017;January(6):1–11.

Poposka BI, Metodieva M, Zakoska M, et al. Latent tuberculosis infection - diagnosis and treatment. Open Access MacedJ Med Sci. 2018;6(4):651–5. DOI:

Person AK, Pettit AC, Sterling TR. Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: an update. Curr Respir Care Rep. 2013;2(4):199–207. DOI:

Şİmşek H, Alpar SM, Aksu K, et al. The comprehensive evaluation of latent tuberculosis infection in health care workers and of patients with active tuberculosis using TST, ELISA, and ELISPOT methods. Turkish J Med Sci. 2010;40(4):585–91. DOI:

Shakak AO, Khalil EG, Musa AM, et al. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Sudan : a case – control study comparing interferon- γ release assay and tuberculin skin test. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1128):1–7. DOI:

WHO. Guidelines on the management of latent tuberculosis infection. Global TB Programme, editor. WHO. Genewa: WHO; 2015. 33 p. Available from:

Yap P, Tan KX, Lim WY, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis in Singapore : a cross-sectional survey. Int J Infect Dis 2018;72:55–62. DOI:

Reichler MR, Khan A, Yuan Y, et al. Duration of exposure among close contacts of patients with infectious tuberculosis and risk of latent tuberculosis infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(7):1627–34. DOI:

Jones-lópez EC, Acuña-villaorduña C, Fregona G, et al. Incident mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in household contacts of infectious tuberculosis patients in Brazil. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(576):1–10. DOI:

Indreswari SA, Suharyo. Kadar interferon gamma pada kontak serumah dengan penderita tuberkulosis. J Kesehat Masy Nas. 2012;6(5):212–8.

Odera S, Mureithi M, Aballa A, et al. Latent tuberculosis among household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Nairobi , Kenya. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;37(87):1–14. DOI:

Nardell EA. Transmission and institutional infection control of tuberculosis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2016;6(a018192):1–12.

Wang PD LR. Tuberculosis transmission in the family. J Infect. 2000;41:249–51. DOI:

Cubilla-Batista I, Ruiz N, Sambrano D, et al. Overweight, obesity, and older age favor latent tuberculosis infection among household contacts in low tuberculosis-incidence settings within Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019;100(5):1141–4. DOI:

Faksri K, Reechaipichitkul W, Pimrin W, et al. Transmission and risk factors for latent tuberculosis infections among index case-matches household contacts. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2015;46(3):486–95.

Aman AM, Zeidan ZA. Latent tuberculosis infection among household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Central State, Sudan: prevalence and associated factors. J Tuberc Res. 2017;05(04):265–75. DOI:

Tipayamongkholgul M, Podhipak A, Chearskul S, Sunakorn P. Factors associated with the development of tuberculosis in BCG immunized children. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36(1):145–50.

Martinez L, Shen Y, Mupere E, et al. Transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis in households and the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;185(12):1327–39. DOI:


Karbito, K., Susanto, H., Adi, M. S., Sulistiyani, S., Handayani, O. W. K., & Sofro, M. A. U. (2022). Latent tuberculosis infection in family members in household contact with active tuberculosis patients in Semarang City, Central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 13(2).


Download data is not yet available.