Protection level of anti-hepatitis B vaccine in a pediatric Cameroonian population

Authors

  • Celine Nguefeu Nkenfou “Chantal Biya” International Reference Centre, Yaounde; Department of Biological Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon
  • Merveille Kemenang School of Health Sciences, Catholic University of central Africa, Yaounde, Cameroon
  • Réné Essomba School of Health Sciences, Catholic University of central Africa, Yaounde; National Laboratory of Public Health, medical immunology and infectious diseases, Yaounde, Cameroon
  • Aubin Nanfack “Chantal Biya” International Reference Centre, Laboratory of immunology and microbiology, Yaounde, Cameroon
  • Paul-Fernand Endja Dominican Hospital Saint Martin de Porres, Yaounde, Cameroon

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2247

Keywords:

Hepatitis B; Mother to child transmission; HBV vaccine; protection level.

Abstract

Background: Despite the availability for nearly twenty years of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B remains one of the most frequent viral diseases throughout the world. Mother-to-child transmission is one of the primary routes of transmission in children.

Objective: To assess the vaccine response in children born to HBV-infected mothers.

Methods: HBsAg-positive consenting mothers registered in the antenatal care (ANC) service database of Centre Hospitalier Dominicain St-Martin de Porres, Yaounde were enrolled with their children. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a tested questionnaire. The 5 markers of hepatitis B were tested and the quantification of anti-HBsAg antibodies was done by indirect ELISA method. The data collected was analyzed using Microsoft excel and Epi-info software.

Results: Out of 5,996 women registered, 143 were identified as HBsAg positive (2.38% prevalence), of which 50 were enrolled in the study. Of the 50 positive mothers, 78 children were included with a mean age ± standard deviation of 2.33 ± 2.86 years. No child was infected with HBV, but all have been exposed to the virus (HBeAb-positive). Overall 64 (82.05%) received at birth both anti-HBs immunoglobulin (HBIG) and a dose of vaccine, while 14 (17.95%) received only the birth dose of vaccine. 72 (92.31%) children received all three recommended doses of the vaccine. Vaccine responders were 62.82% (above 10 IU/mL), while 37.18% of children were non-responders; representing a higher risk group if not boosted.

Conclusion: The coverage of anti-HBV vaccine in children in this study was 92.31%. The protection level of 62.82% is below the 95% recommended rate by WHO. The factors sustaining this suboptimal protection should be investigated.

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Published

15-12-2023

How to Cite

Nkenfou, C. N., Kemenang, M., Essomba, R., Nanfack, A., & Endja, P.-F. (2023). Protection level of anti-hepatitis B vaccine in a pediatric Cameroonian population. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 14(12). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2247

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Original Articles