Factors associated with caesarean sections among pregnant women admitted to a private academic hospital in Ongwediva, Oshana region, Namibia


  • Daniel Opotamutale Ashipala Department of General Nursing Science, School of Nursing and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Namibia (UNAM), Rundu https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8913-056X
  • Victoria Kandjaba Department of General Nursing Science, School of Nursing and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Namibia (UNAM), Rundu




Associated factors, caesarean section, pregnant women, indications, obstetric


Background. Caesarean section rates are increasing worldwide in both developed and developing countries becoming an issue of grave concern. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the factors associated with caesarean sections performed on pregnant women admitted to a private academic hospital in Ongwediva, Oshana region, Namibia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective data approach was conducted on 200 patients’ files using a self-administered checklist at a private academic hospital. A total of 200 records of mothers who underwent caesarean sections were systematically reviewed from January 2020 to December 2020 at a private academic hospital in Ongwediva, Namibia. A pretested structured checklist was used to record the data. Results. The study revealed that 95.5% of women who had caesarean sections (C-section) were performed. A previous C-section was the most frequent indication, while 0.5% were performed due to patient requests. The p-value for the chi-square statistic was smaller than the standard alpha value (P<0.05), i.e., there is a relationship between the demographic characteristics and factors associated with caesarean sections, as well as between socioeconomic factors and factors associated with caesarean sections. Conclusions. This study shows that 95.5% of C-sections are done as a necessity with clear indications, while only 0.5% are done due to patient requests. This study’s findings can be used to develop strategies and targeted interventions geared towards reducing the increasing rates of cesarean section considering maternal age, the number of indications of primary cesarean delivery, and following standard operating procedures that might improve the quality of prenatal and delivery care.

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How to Cite

Ashipala, D. O., & Kandjaba, V. (2023). Factors associated with caesarean sections among pregnant women admitted to a private academic hospital in Ongwediva, Oshana region, Namibia. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 14(8). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2402



Original Articles