Sex and age differences in the COVID-19 mortality in East Jakarta, Indonesia: Analysis of COVID-19 surveillance system

Published: 7 December 2022
Abstract Views: 190
PDF: 161
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


  • Sumiati Sumiati Disease Prevention and Control Section, East Jakarta District Health Office, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Nur Aini Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia.
  • Tika Dwi Tama Department of Public Health, Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, East Jav; Centre of Gender and Health, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, East Java, Indonesia.

Demographic factors have been reported to worsen COVID-19 outcomes. However, there is limited evidence about the different effects of sex and age on COVID-19 death in East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study examined the association between sex and age with COVID-19 mortality. Using COVID- 19 surveillance data of East Jakarta from March 2020 to December 2021, we calculated COVID-19 mortality and examined the risk of COVID-19 death by sex and age. The risk of COVID-19 death associated with sex and age was examined by using Multiple Logistic Regression. A total of 202.412 cases were analyzed and 1.9% of them died. The elderly had a 41.88-folds increased risk of COVID-19 mortality than younger patients (<45 years) (aOR 41.88; 95% CI 37.49-46.77; p-value <0.0001). Male had a higher risk of COVID-19 death compared to female (aOR 1.27; 95% CI 1.19-1.35; pvalue <0.0001). Age and sex had a significant association with COVID-19 mortality. Adequate management of COVID-19 cases, particularly in the elderly and male patients, may reduce the severity of COVID-19 or even mortality.

World Health Organization. Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 - 28 December 2021 overview [Internet]. Geneva; 2021. Available from:

Satuan Tugas Penanganan Covid-19. Analisis Data Covid19. Jakarta; 2021.

Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Info Covid-19 di Jakarta Minggu ini: 12-18 Desember 2021 [Internet]. Jakarta; 2021. Available from:

Ramírez-Soto MC, Arroyo-Hernández H, Ortega-Cáceres G. Sex differences in the incidence, mortality, and fatality of COVID-19 in Peru. PLoS One. 2021;16(6 June):10–9.

Rozaliyani A, Savitri AI, Setianingrum F, Shelly TN, Ratnasari V, Kuswindarti R, et al. Factors Associated with Death in COVID-19 Patients in Jakarta, Indonesia: An Epidemiological Study. Acta Med Indones. 2020;52(3):246–54.

Biswas M, Rahaman S, Biswas TK, Haque Z, Ibrahim B. Association of Sex, Age, and Comorbidities with Mortality in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Intervirology. 2021;64(1):36–47.

Zhang X Bin, Hu L, Ming Q, Wei XJ, Zhang ZY, Chen L Da, et al. Risk factors for mortality of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients in two centers of Hubei province, China: A retrospective analysis. PLoS One [Internet]. 2021;16(1 January):1–15. Available from:

Gopalan N, Senthil S, Prabakar NL, Senguttuvan T, Bhaskar A, Jagannathan M, et al. Predictors of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and risk score formulation for prioritizing tertiary care-An experience from South India. PLoS One [Internet]. 2022;17(2 February):1–16. Available from:

Azizmohammad Looha M, Rezaei-Tavirani M, Rostami-Nejad M, Janbazi S, Zarean E, Amini P, et al. Assessing sex differential in COVID-19 mortality rate by age and polymerase chain reaction test results: an Iranian multi-center study. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther [Internet]. 2022;20(4):631–41. Available from:

Zheng Z, Peng F, Xu B, Zhao J, Liu H, Peng J. Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2020;(January).

Falahi S, Kenarkoohi A. Sex and gender differences in the outcome of patients with COVID-19. J Med Virol. 2021;93(1):151–2.

Xu Y, Dong J, An W, Lv X, Yin X. Clinical and computed tomographic imaging features of novel coronavirus pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2. J Infect. 2020;80(January):394–400.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Pedoman Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19). 5th ed. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2020.

Hu C, Li J, Xing X, Gao J, Zhao S, Xing L. The effect of age on the clinical and immune characteristics of critically ill patients with COVID-19: A preliminary report. PLoS One [Internet]. 2021;16(3 March):1–11. Available from:

Setyaningsih W, Pamungkas IG, Fauziah Q. Description of Perception, Attitude, and Behavior of the Pre-Elderly and Elderly towards the Prevention of Covid-19 Transmission in Jabodetabek [Internet]. Jakarta; 2021. Available from: Elderly and Perception of Covid 19 Transmission.pdf

Karnadi EB, Kusumahadi TA. Why Does Indonesia Have a High Covid-19 Case-Fatality Rate? JejakJournal Econ Policy. 2021;14(2):272–87.

Sipahutar T, Eryando T. COVID-19 case fatality rate and detection ability in Indonesia. Kesmas. 2020;15(2):14–7.

Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S. Case-Fatality Rate and Characteristics of Patients Dying in Relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2020;323(18):1775–6.

Kim DH, Choe YJ, Jeong JY. Understanding and interpretation of case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019. J Korean Med Sci. 2020;35(12):1–3.

Sujarwoto S, Maharani A. Sociodemographic characteristics and health access associated with COVID-19 infection and death: a cross-sectional study in Malang District, Indonesia. BMJ Open. 2022;12(5):1–16.

Jin JM, Bai P, He W, Wu F, Liu XF, Han DM, et al. Gender Differences in Patients With COVID-19: Focus on Severity and Mortality. Front Public Heal. 2020;8(April):1–6.

Ikawaty R. Dinamika Interaksi Reseptor ACE2 dan SARS-CoV-2 Terhadap Manifestasi Klinis COVID-19. KELUWIH J Kesehat dan Kedokt. 2020;1(2):70–6.

Kaseb AO, Mohamed YI, Malek AE, Raad II, Altameemi L, Li D, et al. The impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (Ace2) expression on the incidence and severity of covid-19 infection. Pathogens. 2021;10(3).

Peckham H, de Gruijter NM, Raine C, Radziszewska A, Ciurtin C, Wedderburn LR, et al. Male sex identified by global COVID-19 meta-analysis as a risk factor for death and ITU admission. Nat Commun [Internet]. 2020;11(1):1–10. Available from:

Dai M, Tao L, Chen Z, Tian Z, Guo X, Allen-Gipson DS, et al. Influence of Cigarettes and Alcohol on the Severity and Death of COVID-19: A Multicenter Retrospective Study in Wuhan, China. Front Physiol. 2020;11(December):1–6.

Bailey KL, Sayles H, Campbell J, Khalid N, Anglim M, Ponce J, et al. COVID-19 patients with documented alcohol use disorder or alcohol-related complications are more likely to be hospitalized and have higher all-cause mortality. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2022;46(6):1023–35.

Sumiati, S., Aini, N., & Tama, T. D. (2022). Sex and age differences in the COVID-19 mortality in East Jakarta, Indonesia: Analysis of COVID-19 surveillance system. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 13(s2).


Download data is not yet available.