Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in secondary school student population in the city of Douala, Cameroon

Submitted: 17 January 2023
Accepted: 24 March 2023
Published: 29 August 2023
Abstract Views: 384
PDF: 43
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While the burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is still increasing in sub‑Saharan Africa, there is a lack of data among young Cameroonian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among secondary school students in Douala. This was a cross‑sectional prospective study carried out on 803 students recruited from February to May 2021 in public and private secondary schools in Douala city, Cameroon. MetS was assessed according to the IDF/AHA/NHLBI 2009 consensus definition. The data collection consisted of a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, measurement of anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference) and overnight fasting blood sample. Blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured using standard methods. The mean age was 18±3 years, 73.3% female. The prevalence of MetS was 27.4%, common among participants aged ≥16 years, and higher in females compare to males (33.7% vs. 11.1%, P<0.0001). The prevalence of MetS components i.e abdominal obesity, high BP, fasting hyperglycemia, low‑level HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia were 14.1, 18.1, 42.8, 51.4 and 38.6% respectively. All MetS components were significantly higher in females compared to males except for high BP which was similar among the genders. In our study population, the prevalence of MetS is high and this calls for improved monitoring to limit the evolution of associated cardiometabolic complications among young Cameroonians.

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