Stunting incident prevention: a systematic literature review


  • Fitri Rachmillah Fadmi Doctoral Program of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Kuntoro Kuntoro Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Bambang Widjanarko Otok Departement of Statistics, Faculty of Science and Data Analytics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya
  • Soenarnatalina Melaniani Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya;



education, government, incident, parent, policy, stunting


Introduction. Stunting incident prevention is important to ensure the quality of the future generation. With excellent future generations, Indonesia can compete with other nations and survive future challenges. Unfortunately, some provinces in Indonesia still had high stunting incident prevalence. The aim of this study is to provide information about the influential contributors of stunting incidents qualitatively and quantitatively and to provide recommendations for stunting incident prevention. Materials and Methods. The researchers applied for a systematic literature review with a modified PRISMA procedure. The third criterion was that the articles had to be non-systematic literature review articles, published from 2017 until 2022. Results. This process eventually led to 20 relevant articles: 15 quantitative articles and 3 qualitative articles. From the reviewed quantitative and qualitative research articles, the researchers found twelve influential factors of stunting incidents. Among these twelve factors, the reviewing results found two top factors with OR values more than 12 times. They were family income, the number of children and the ages of the children. Conclusions. The researchers found that the most prominent factors of stunting incidents during the observations in qualitative research were parent education, early marriage, dietary system, economic and social status. Although statistically, the top influential factors were family income and the number of children, and ages of children, the minor contributors must be considered. On the other hand, the efforts to improve parent education require interventions from the government.

Download data is not yet available.


Vaivada T, Akseer N, Akseer S, Somaskandan A, Stefopulos M, Bhutta ZA. Stunting in childhood: an overview of global burden, trends, determinants, and drivers of decline. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020;112(Supplement_2):777S-791S. DOI:

Laksono AD, Wulandari RD, Amaliah N, Wisnuwardani RW. Stunting among children under two years in Indonesia: Does maternal education matter? PLoS One. 2022;17(7):e0271509. DOI:

Hall C, Bennett C, Crookston B, et al. Maternal knowledge of stunting in rural Indonesia. Int J Child Heal Nutr. 2018;7(4):139-145. DOI:

Simbolon D, Suryani D, Yorita E. Prediction model and scoring system in prevention and control of stunting problems in under five-year-olds in Indonesia. KEMAS J Kesehat Masy. 2019;15(2):160-170. DOI:

Flynn J, Alkaff FF, Sukmajaya WP, Salamah S. Comparison of WHO and Indonesian growth standards in determining prevalence and determinants of stunting and underweight in children under five: a cross-sectional study from Musi sub-district. F1000Research. 2020;9. DOI:

Djuardi Y, Lazarus G, Stefanie D, Fahmida U, Ariawan I, Supali T. Soil-transmitted helminth infection, anemia, and malnutrition among preschool-age children in Nangapanda subdistrict, Indonesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021;15(6):e0009506. DOI:

Kurnianingtyas S, Sartika RAD, Ningsih WM. Underweight in Child Aged 24-59 Months in North Sumatra: the 2014 Indonesia Family Life Survey Data. Indones J Public Heal Nutr. 2021;1(2). DOI:

Basri H, Hadju V. Breastfeeding and complementary food on nutritional status infants in Indonesia. Enfermería Clínica. 2020;30:191-195. DOI:

Rizky Maulidiana A, Sutjiati E. Low intake of essential amino acids and other risk factors of stunting among under-five children in Malang City, East Java, Indonesia. J Public health Res. 2021;10(2):jphr. 2021.2161. DOI:

Setia A, Saleh AS, Adi AAAM, Demu YDB. Determinants of Nutritional Status of Two-Year-Old Infant’s First Thousand Days of Life in Work Area of Oepoi Public Health Center, Kupang, Indonesia. Int J Nutr Sci. 2021;6(2):81-89.

Tasnim T, Dasvarma G, Mwanri L. Housing conditions contribute to underweight in children: An example from rural villages in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. J Prev Med Public Heal. 2017;50(5):328. DOI:

Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group* P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(4):264-269. DOI:

Torlesse H, Cronin AA, Sebayang SK, Nandy R. Determinants of stunting in Indonesian children: evidence from a cross-sectional survey indicate a prominent role for the water, sanitation and hygiene sector in stunting reduction. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1-11. DOI:

Aryastami NK, Shankar A, Kusumawardani N, Besral B, Jahari AB, Achadi E. Low birth weight was the most dominant predictor associated with stunting among children aged 12–23 months in Indonesia. BMC Nutr. 2017;3(1):1-6. DOI:

Badruddin IA, Muthia K, Darwita RR, et al. Relationship between oral health status and stunting in 5-year-old children in Indonesia. J Int Dent Med Res. 2021;14(3):1039-1043.

Ramadhan R, Ramadhan N. Determination of the causes of stunting in Aceh province. Cell Heal Res J. 2018;5(2):68-76. DOI:

Mugianti S, Mulyadi A, Anam AK, Najah ZL. Factors causing stunting in children aged 25-60 months in Sukorejo District, Blitar City. J Nurses Midwifery (Journal Ners Midwifery). 2018;5(3):268-278. DOI:

Titaley CR, Ariawan I, Hapsari D, Muasyaroh A, Dibley MJ. Determinants of the stunting of children under two years old in Indonesia: a multilevel analysis of the 2013 Indonesia basic health survey. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):1106. DOI:

Ernawati A. Overview of the Causes of Stunting Toddlers in Locus Stunting Village, Pati Regency. R&D J Res Dev Sci Technol Inf Media. 2020;16(2):77-94. DOI:

Zakaria R, Suma J. Determinants of Stunting in Children Aged 24-59 Months in Gorontalo, Indonesia. J Matern Child Heal. 2020;5(03):287-296. DOI:

Akbar MT, Mahardhika DW, Sihaloho ED. Stunting in Eastern Indonesia: Determinants and Solution from Indonesian Family Life Survey. J Cita Ekon. 2021;15(1):1-13. DOI:

Sartika AN, Khoirunnisa M, Meiyetriani E, Ermayani E, Pramesthi IL, Nur Ananda AJ. Prenatal and postnatal determinants of stunting at age 0–11 months: A cross-sectional study in Indonesia. PLoS One. 2021;16(7):e0254662. DOI:

Huriah T, Handayani P, Sudyasih T, Susyanto BE. The Determinant Factors of Stunting Among Children in Urban Slums Area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(T4):1-5. DOI:

Saputri RA, Tumangger J. Upstream and downstream stunting prevention in Indonesia. J Polit Issues. 2019;1(1):1-9. DOI:

Ulfah IF, Nugroho AB. Observing the Challenges of Health Development in Indonesia: Factors that Cause Stunting in Jember District. Sospol J Sos Polit. 2020;6(2):201-213. DOI:

Christina C, Gunawan G, Sultanea R, et al. Pola Asuh Orangtua Dan Kurangnya Gizi Anak Penyebab Stunting Di Desa Karangduwur, Kalikajar, Wonosobo. J Pengabdi Masy Madani. 2022;2(2):188-195. DOI:

Hasan M, Islam MM, Mubarak E, Haque MA, Choudhury N, Ahmed T. Mother’s dietary diversity and association with stunting among children< 2 years old in a low socio‐economic environment: A case–control study in an urban care setting in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Matern Child Nutr. 2019;15(2):e12665. DOI:

Fatemi MJ, Fararouei M, Moravej H, Dianatinasab M. Stunting and its associated factors among 6–7-year-old children in southern Iran: a nested case–control study. Public Health Nutr. 2019;22(1):55-62. DOI:

Roesler AL, Smithers LG, Wangpakapattanawong P, Moore V. Stunting, dietary diversity and household food insecurity among children under 5 years in ethnic communities of northern Thailand. J Public Health (Bangkok). 2019;41(4):772-780. DOI:

Indriyani E, Dewi YLR, Salimo H. Biopsychosocial determinants of stunting in children under five: A path analysis evidence from the Border Area West Kalimantan. J Matern Child Heal. 2018;3(2):146-155. DOI:

Li Z, Kim R, Vollmer S, Subramanian S V. Factors associated with child stunting, wasting, and underweight in 35 low-and middle-income countries. JAMA Netw open. 2020;3(4):e203386-e203386. DOI:

Baye K, Laillou A, Chitweke S. Socio-economic inequalities in child stunting reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Nutrients. 2020;12(1):253. DOI:

Utami RA, Setiawan A, Fitriyani P. Identifying causal risk factors for stunting in children under five years of age in South Jakarta, Indonesia. Enfermería Clínica. 2019;29:606-611. DOI:

Barir B, Murti B, Pamungkasari EP. The associations between exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and the risk of stunting in children under five years of age: A path analysis evidence from Jombang East Java. J Matern Child Heal. 2019;4(6):486-498. DOI:

Rufaida FD, Raharjo AM, Handoko A. The Correlation of Family and Household Factors on The Incidence of Stunting on Toddlers in Three Villages Sumberbaru Health Center Work Area of Jember. J Agromedicine Med Sci. 2020;6(1):1-6. DOI:

Soekatri MYE, Sandjaja S, Syauqy A. Stunting was associated with reported morbidity, parental education and socioeconomic status in 0.5–12-year-old Indonesian children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(17):6204. DOI:

Casale D, Espi G, Norris SA. Estimating the pathways through which maternal education affects stunting: evidence from an urban cohort in South Africa. Public Health Nutr. 2018;21(10):1810-1818. DOI:

Pillai VK, Maleku A. Women’s education and child stunting reduction in India. J Soc Soc Welf. 2019;46:111. DOI:

Pratiwi IR, Alibasjah RW, Sulistiyana CS. The Correlation Between Mother’s Knowledge, Education And Family Income With Nutritional Status Of Toddler (AGED 1-5 YEARS). In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Science and Health. ; 2019:182-187.

Hati FS, Pratiwi AM. The Effect of Education Giving on The Parent’s Behavior About Growth Stimulation in Children with Stunting. NurseLine J. 2019;4(1):12-20. DOI:

Gibson J. Can women’s education aid economic development? The effect on child stunting in Papua New Guinea. Published online 2019.




How to Cite

Fadmi, F. R., Kuntoro, K., Widjanarko Otok, B., & Melaniani, S. (2023). Stunting incident prevention: a systematic literature review. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 14(s2).