Effect of mangosteen skin ethanol extract on streptozotocin-induced TNF-α expression


  • Novera Herdiani Doctoral Program of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Bambang Wirjatmadi Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Kuntoro Kuntoro Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Maki Zamzam Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya




diabetes, mangosteen peel, streptozotocin, TNF


Introduction. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a significant health problem worldwide. DM with poor control of blood glucose levels can eventually cause pancreatic cell disorders, including a decrease in cell mass and function. Mangosteen rind contains xanthone compounds that can be used to protect and reduce cell damage, especially those caused by free radicals. This study aimed to analyze the administration of mangosteen peel ethanol extract on the expression of TNF-α induced by streptozotocin. Materials and Methods. The research was carried out in an experimental laboratory. The research design used was Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. The sample is a male rat Wistar strain. Rats were grouped into five groups, namely negative control group, positive control STZ, mangosteen peel extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg BW (K2), a dose of 400 mg/kg BW (K3), an amount of 600 mg/kg BW (K4). Administration of therapy for 14 days orally. Results. The effects of the mangosteen rind extract had a lower TNF- positive cell count of 3.83 compared to the group that was not treated with the mangosteen rind extract 19.33. All treatment groups showed a significant difference (P<0.001) in the number of TNF- protein-expressing cells. This research can inform the public that mangosteen peel’s benefits can be developed as prevention and alternative treatment in humans caused by inflammation. Conclusions. This research affects the administration of ethanol extract of mangosteen peel to decrease the number of TNFpositive cells with an effective dose of 600 mg/kg BW.

Download data is not yet available.


Kangralkar VA, Patil SD, Bandivadekar RM. Oxidative stress and diabetes: a review. Int J Pharm Appl 2010; 1: 38–45.

Kumawat M, Bala Pahwa M, Singh Gahlaut V, et al. Status of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetes mellitus with micro vascular complications. Open Endocrinol J; 3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1874216500903010012

Ueda-Wakagi M, Nagayasu H, Yamashita Y, et al. Green tea ameliorates hyperglycemia by promoting the translocation of glucose transporter 4 in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rodents. Int J Mol Sci 2019; 20: 2436. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102436

Atlas D. International diabetes federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 7th edn Brussels, Belgium Int Diabetes Fed; 33.

Kemenkes RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan RI. 25 Juli 2015.

Ma ZA, Zhao Z, Turk J. Mitochondrial dysfunction and β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Diabetes Res; 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/703538

Lampropoulou IT, Stangou Μ, Sarafidis P, et al. TNF-α pathway and T-cell immunity are activated early during the development of diabetic nephropathy in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Clin Immunol 2020; 215: 108423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108423

Ban E, Jeong S, Park M, et al. Accelerated wound healing in diabetic mice by miRNA-497 and its anti-inflammatory activity. Biomed Pharmacother 2020; 121: 109613. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109613

Zhang C, Xi L, Zhao S, et al. Interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α levels in conjunctiva of diabetic patients with symptomatic moderate dry eye: case–control study. BMJ Open 2016; 6: e010979. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010979

Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Specialized immunity at epithelial barriers and in immune privileged tissues. Cell Mol Immunol 8th Ed Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, USA 2014; 289–311.

Becker D, Banerjee R, Dickman M, et al. Redox biochemistry. John Wiley & Sons, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470177334

Akbarzadeh A, Norouzian D, Mehrabi MR, et al. Induction of diabetes by Streptozotocin in rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2007; 22: 60–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02913315

Roh S-S, Kwon OJ, Yang JH, et al. Allium hookeri root protects oxidative stress-induced inflammatory responses and β-cell damage in pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016; 16: 1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1032-1

Volpe CMO, Villar-Delfino PH, Dos Anjos PMF, et al. Cellular death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and diabetic complications. Cell Death Dis 2018; 9: 1–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-017-0135-z

Hendiani I, Hadidjah D, Susanto A, et al. The effectiveness of mangosteen rind extract as additional therapy on chronic periodontitis (Clinical trials). Padjadjaran J Dent; 29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24198/pjd.vol29no1.12986

Akhlaghi M, Bandy B. Mechanisms of flavonoid protection against myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2009; 46: 309–317. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.12.003

Wulandaria DD, Ersamb T. Study Of α-Mangostin Compound And Antidiabetic Assay From Fruit Hull Of Garcinia Mangostana Linn.

Xie Z, Sintara M, Chang T, et al. Daily consumption of a mangosteen‐based drink improves in vivo antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory biomarkers in healthy adults: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical trial. Food Sci Nutr 2015; 3: 342–348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.225

Reddy SP. The antioxidant response element and oxidative stress modifiers in airway diseases. Curr Mol Med 2008; 8: 376–383. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/156652408785160925

Holzmann B. Antiinflammatory activities of CGRP modulating innate immune responses in health and disease. Curr Protein Pept Sci 2013; 14: 268–274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/13892037113149990046

Li L, Wu W, Huang W, et al. NF-κB RNAi decreases the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inhibits TNF-α-induced apoptosis in human alveolar epithelial cells. Inflamm Res 2013; 62: 387–397. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-013-0590-7

Nieto-Vazquez I, Fernández-Veledo S, Krämer DK, et al. Insulin resistance associated to obesity: the link TNF-alpha. Arch Physiol Biochem 2008; 114: 183–194. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13813450802181047

Plaza M, Domínguez-Rodríguez G, Sahelices C, et al. A Sustainable Approach for Extracting Non-Extractable Phenolic Compounds from Mangosteen Peel Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents. Appl Sci 2021; 11: 5625. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125625

Bumrungpert A, Kalpravidh RW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, et al. Xanthones from mangosteen prevent lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes. J Nutr 2009; 139: 1185–1191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.106617

Hassan AA, Moustafa EM, El-Khashab IH, et al. Mangosteen hinders gamma radiation-mediated oxidative stress and liver injury by down-regulating TNF-α/NF-κB and pro-fibrotic factor TGF-β1 inducing inflammatory signaling. Dose-Response 2021; 19: 15593258211025190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/15593258211025190

Meng Q, Wang Y, Chen F, et al. Polysaccharides from Diaphragma juglandis fructus: Extraction optimization, antitumor, and immune-enhancement effects. Int J Biol Macromol 2018; 115: 835–845. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.04.121

Higuchi H, Tanaka A, Nishikawa S, et al. Suppressive effect of mangosteen rind extract on the spontaneous development of atopic dermatitis in NC/T nd mice. J Dermatol 2013; 40: 786–796. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.12250

Brem H, Tomic-Canic M. Cellular and molecular basis of wound healing in diabetes. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 1219–1222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI32169

Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity. Immunity 2011; 34: 637–650. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2011.05.006

Wong M, Ziring D, Korin Y, et al. TNFα blockade in human diseases: mechanisms and future directions. Clin Immunol 2008; 126: 121–136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2007.08.013

Nakatani K, Nakahata N, Arakawa T, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by γ-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 63: 73–79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00810-3

Devalaraja S, Jain S, Yadav H. Exotic fruits as therapeutic complements for diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Food Res Int 2011; 44: 1856–1865. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.04.008




How to Cite

Herdiani, N., Wirjatmadi, B., Kuntoro, K., & Zamzam, M. (2023). Effect of mangosteen skin ethanol extract on streptozotocin-induced TNF-α expression. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 14(s2). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2574