Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Asia: a review

Published: 25 May 2023
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Introduction. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a global problem that occurs in the world. This case occurred in pregnant women at 24-28 weeks of gestation. The global prevalence of GDM varies widely from 1% to 28%. Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of GDM in Asia and the risk factors for GDM. Materials and Methods. This research method used a systematic review for observational studies. The research inclusion criteria were original English papers, with full text published in peerreviewed journals. Method of 23 international articles in 2012-2022, which have articles that meet the requirements to be researched subjects regarding the description of the average prevalence of GDM cases in Asia and the risk factors for GDM. Results. The results of the study found that the lowest prevalence of GDM was in India at 1.9%, and the highest prevalence was found in Australia at 30%. The average risk factors for GDM are a family history of DM, BMI > 25 kg/m2, multiparity and history of GDM in previous pregnancies, and history of abortion. The results of a journal review also show that mothers who give birth to GDM have a 48% risk of developing DM in the future. Conclusion. Based on the conclusion in this study, with the wide variation in GDM prevalence rates, it is better to set a GDM risk factor score so that other health services can use these indicators as the gold standard for screening GDM.

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