Guidelines for Authors

Manuscript will be carefully scrutinized for evidence of plagiarism, duplication and data manipulation; in particular, images will be carefully examined for any indication of intentional improper modification.

Any suspected misconduct ends up with a quick rejection and is then reported to the US Office of Research Integrity.

Ensure that your work is written in correct English before submission. Professional copyediting can help authors improve the presentation of their work and increase its chances of being taken on by a publisher. In case you feel that your manuscript would benefit from a professional a professional English language copyediting checking language grammar and style, you can find a reliable revision service at:

The Corresponding Author must submit the manuscript online-only through our Manuscript Submission System.

Authors are kindly invited to suggest potential reviewers (names, affilitations and email addresses) for their manuscript, if they wish.

Manuscript preparation

Title Page (first and second pages of manuscript file). REQUIRED for all submissions.

The first page must contain:

  1. title (lowercase), without acronyms;
  2. first name and family name of each author, separated by commas;
  3. affiliation(s) of each author (in English);
  4. acknowledgments;
  5. full name and full postal address of the corresponding author. Phone, fax number and e-mail address for the correspondence should also be included;
  6. three to five key words.

The second page should contain:

  1. authors' contributions, e.g., information about the contributions of each person named as having participated in the study (;
  2. disclosures about potential conflict of interests;
  3. further information (e.g., funding, conference presentation ...).

Tables and Figures

If tables are used, they should be presented each on a separate page at the end of the manuscript after the references. They must be numbered in the order they are cited in the text of the manuscript; each must be cited in the main text.
If figures are used, they must be submitted as .tiff or .jpg files, with the following digital resolution:

  1. color (saved as CMYK): minimum 300 dpi;
  2. black and white/grays: minimum 600 dpi;
  3. one column width (8.5 cm) or 2 column widths (17.5 cm).

A different caption for each figure must be provided at the end of the manuscript, not included in the figure file.
Authors must obtain written permission for the reproduction and adaptation of material which has already been published. A copy of the written permission has to be provided before publication (otherwise the paper cannot be published) and appropriately cited in the figure caption. The procedure for requesting the permission is the responsibility of the Authors; PAGEPress will not refund any costs incurred in obtaining permission. Alternatively, it is advisable to use materials from other (free) sources.


If abbreviations are used in the text, authors are required to write full name+abbreviation in brackets [e.g. Multiple Myeloma (MM)] the first time they are used, then only abbreviations can be written (apart from titles; in this case authors have to write always the full name).
If names of equipment or substances are mentioned in the text, brand, company names and locations (city and state) for equipment and substances should be included in parentheses within the text.

Ethical considerations

JPHIA requires the following two components related to ethical conduct of research:

1. Ethical Considerations section in main text. An Ethical Considerations sub-section is REQUIRED in the Methods section for all studies involving human or animal subjects. Authors must include the following:

1) name of Institutional Review Board or ethics committee or institution that reviewed the study,
2) study approval number (or statement that a waiver was granted),
3) manner (oral, written) in which consent was obtained from participants, and
4) methods used to protect data and confidentiality of participants.

For Original articles and Brief Reports that did not require ethical review or approval, authors must provide a justification or statement in the Ethical Considerations section.

2. Clearance documentation. For studies that involve human or animal subjects, authors must upload a copy of the approval letter, certificate or waiver from their IRB or ethics committee as a supplementary file.

Journal Sections

The manuscript file for all article types must contain the following required elements: a title page, abstract, main text, references, acknowledgements, tables and figures, in that order. Manuscript files must be 1.5 or 2.0 spaced.

DO NOT format the text of the abstract, main text and references in multiple columns.

DO NOT submit required elements as separate files.



Manuscripts must be fomatted according to the instructions below.

  • Original Articles
    Original articles are full reports of results from original research. They provide an overview of innovative research in a particular field with or related to the focus and scope of the journal.
    • Abstract:  Maximum 250 words. Must be structured using the headings: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusion.
    • Main text: Maximum 3500 words. Must be stuctured using the headings below.
      • First-level headings:  Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion. NOTE: The Results and Discussion sections must be presented as separate sections; do not submit manuscripts with the Results and Discussion combined into a single section.
      • Second-level headings:
        • The Materials and Methods section must contain an Ethical Considerations section presented as its first sub-section. See Ethical Considerations section above for detailed requirements.
        • The Discussion must include a Limitations section presented as its last section
    • References: Approximately 30.
    • Tables/Figures: Maximum 5 total.

  • Reviews
    Review articles provide an in-depth exploration of recent developments in any field related to public health. All funding, writing assistance, and/or other relationships to possibly conflicted sources must be fully disclosed at the time of submission.
    • Systematic reviews
      • Abstract: Maximum 250 words. Must be structured using the headings Introduction, Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusion.
      • Main text: Maximum 4000 words. Must be structured using the headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion. The Methods section must clearly describe the search strategy (keywords, inclusion/exclusion criteria, search engines used, etc.)
    • Narrative reviews:
      • Abstract: Maximum 250 words. May be unstructured.
      • Main text: Maximum 4000 words. Required headings:
        • Introduction. Provide background to put the report in context and define the aim of the study.
        • Methods. Briefly (about 1 paragraph) discuss the search terms and documents used for the review.
        • Topical headings. Other headings as determined by the authors should be used to desginate major topics and serve as a guide for readers.
    • References: Minimum 40.
    • Tables/Figures: Maximum 5 total.

  • Public Health Pictures
    Public Health Picture articles showcase experience and perspectives (rather than research) on knowledge, practices, technological concepts and/or developments related to public health in Africa and other limited-resource settings.
    • Abstract: Maximum 250 words. May be structured using topic-appropriate headings or unstructured.
    • Main text: Maximum 3500 words. Required headings:
      • Introduction. Provide history, background, and/or context for readers to understand the context
      • Topical headings. Other headings as determined by the authors should be used to desginate major topics and serve as a guide for readers.
      • Conclusion. Summarize the main 'take home messages' from the experience or perspective being reported.
    • References: Approximately 20.
    • Tables/Figures: Maximum 5 total.

  • Brief Reports
    Brief Reports must provide conclusive findings: preliminary observations or incomplete findings cannot be considered for publication.
    • Abstract: Maximum 150 words. Must be unstructured and focus on the objective or aim of the study, most important results and conclusion.
    • Main text: Maximum 2000 words. Must be structured using the headings below
      • First-level headings: Background, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion.
      • Second-level headings:
        • The Methods section must contain an Ethical Considerations section presented as its first sub-section. See Ethical Considerations section above for detailed requirements.
        • The Discussion must include a Limitations section presented as its last section
    • References: Approximately 20.
    • Tables/Figures: Maximum 2 total.


  • Case Reports
    Case Reports describe observations on clinical cases that can be educational, including adverse effects of drugs or outcomes of a specific treatment.
    • Abstract: Maximum 150 words. Must be structured using the headings: Introduction, Case Presentation, Management and Outcomes, Conclusion.
    • Main text: Maximum 2000 words. Must be structured using the headings below 
      • First-level headings: Introduction, Case Presentation, Management and Outcomes, Conclusion.
      • Second-level headings: The Case Presentation section must contain an Ethical Considerations section presented as its first sub-section. See 'Permission to publish' below and Ethical Considerations section above for detailed requirements.
    • References: approximately 20.
    • Tables/Figures: Maximum 3 total.
    • Permission to publish: Must have been obtained from patients, parents or guardians (for children), and/or next of kin (for deceased patients). This must be stated in the Ethical Considerations section. Authors must upload a copy of the signed permission form as a supplementary file.

  • Letters to the Editor
    Letters to the Editor are short essays that express the authors’ viewpoint, may respond to published manuscripts in our journals, or deliver information or news regarding an issue related to the Journal scope. If the letter relates to a published manuscript, the authors of the original manuscript will be given the opportunity to provide a response. Authors of Letters to the Editor should provide a short title.
    • Abstract: None. Letters do not have abstracts
    • Main text: Maximum 1500 words. Topical headings are not generally expected, but may be included if helpful for readers.
    • References: Approximately 20.
    • Tables/Figures: Maximum 1 total

  • Opinion
    Opinion articles offer short pieces or personal perspectives (not research) on knowledge, practices, technological concepts and/or developments that highlight recent, exciting research or policy developments related to any aspect of public health.
    • Abstract: None. Opinion articles do not have abstracts.
    • Main text: Maximum 2000 words. Topical headings should be used to help guide readers.
    • References: Approximately 15.
    • Tables/Figures: Maximum 2 total.


For further details on the specific layout to follow for the different types of papers published by the Journal, please refer to the Section Policies.


References should be prepared strictly according to the Vancouver style. References must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text (not alphabetical order), and they must be identified in the text by Arabic numerals in superscript. References in the main text must always be cited after dots and commas. References to personal communications and unpublished data should be incorporated in the text and not placed under the numbered references [Example: (Wright 2011, unpublished data) or (Wright 2011, personal communication)]. Where available, URLs for the references should be provided directly within the MS-Word document. References in the References section must be prepared as follows:

  1. more than three authors, cite 3 authors, et al. If the paper has only 4 authors, cite all authors;
  2. title style: sentence case; please use a capital letter only for the first word of the title;
  3. journal titles mentioned in the References list should be abbreviated according to the following websites:
    1. ISI Journal Abbreviations Index (;
    2. Biological Journals and Abbreviations (;
    3. Medline List of Journal Titles (;
  4. put year after the journal name;
  5. never put month and day in the last part of the references;
  6. cite only the volume (not the issue in brackets);
  7. pages have to be abbreviated, e.g., 351-8.

To ensure the correct citation format, please check your references in the PubMed database (


Standard journal article

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 2002;347:284-7.


Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, eds. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming, 2002 Apr 3-5, Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. pp 182-91.

Article with organization as author

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension 2002;40:679-86.


Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2002.

Bjørn Lomborg, ed. RethinkHIV - Smarter ways to invest in ending HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2012.

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, eds. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2002. pp 93-113.

Peer-review policy

All manuscripts submitted to our journal are critically assessed by external and/or in-house experts in accordance with the principles of peer review (, which is fundamental to the scientific publication process and the dissemination of sound science. Each paper is first assigned by the Editors to an appropriate Associate Editor who has knowledge of the field discussed in the manuscript. The first step of manuscript selection takes place entirely in-house and has two major objectives: i) to establish the article appropriateness for our journals readership; ii) to define the manuscript priority ranking relative to other manuscripts under consideration, since the number of papers that the journal receives is much greater than it can publish. If a manuscript does not receive a sufficiently high priority score to warrant publication, the editors will proceed to a quick rejection. The remaining articles are reviewed by at least two different external referees (second step or classical peer review). Manuscripts should be prepared according to the Uniform Requirements established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship according to the ICMJE criteria. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should only be based on substantial contributions to i) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; and to ii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on iii) final approval of the version to be published. These three conditions must all be met. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Any part of an article critical to its main conclusions must be the responsibility of at least one author. Authors should provide a brief description of their individual contributions.

Obligation to Register Clinical Trials (
The ICMJE believes that it is important to foster a comprehensive, publicly available database of clinical trials. The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, etc. Our journals require, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. The journal considers a trial for publication only if it has been registered before the enrollment of the first patient. The journal does not advocate one particular registry, but requires authors to register their trial in a registry that meets several criteria. The registry must be accessible to the public at no charge. It must be open to all prospective registrants and managed by a non-profit organization. There must be a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data, and the registry should be electronically searchable. An acceptable registry must include a minimum of data elements ( For example, (, sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine, meets these requirements.

Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research
When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013 ( If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether institutional and national standards for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed. Further guidance on animal research ethics is available from the World Medical Association (2016 revision, and from the International Association of Veterinary Editors’ Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare ( When reporting experiments on ecosystems involving non-native species, Authors are bound to ensure compliance with the institutional and national guide for the preservation of native biodiversity.