Original Article

Assessment of immunization session practices in primary health care centers in Al‑Najaf province

Mustafa Ali Qanbar, Alaa Kadhim Jasim, Abdulkareem A. Mahmood
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 14, No 9 | a143 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2754 | © 2024 Mustafa Ali Qanbar, Alaa Kadhim Jasim, Abdulkareem A. Mahmood | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 03 April 2024 | Published: 30 September 2023

About the author(s)

Mustafa Ali Qanbar, Department of Community Health Techniques, College of Health and Medical Technology, Basrah, Southern Technical University, Iraq
Alaa Kadhim Jasim, Department of Medical Laboratory Technologies, College of Health and Medical Technology, Basrah, Southern Technical University, Iraq
Abdulkareem A. Mahmood, Department of Community and Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Kufa, Iraq


Immunization has played a vital role in improving global health by reducing the transmission of infectious diseases. To ensure the successful implementation of immunization programs, it is crucial to thoroughly examine various elements within the Primary Health Care Centers, including immunization session management, cold‑chain and logistics management, supervision, and reporting. The study aims to assess the immunization session practices in selected primary healthcare centers in Al‑Najaf governorate. A descriptive cross‑sectional study was conducted at 26 primary healthcare centers, selected using simple random sampling, across six districts in Najaf governorate. A total of 143 healthcare workers, comprising 122 vaccinators and 21 doctors, were included in the study. Questionnaires were utilized to assess immunization session practices. Data collection commenced on December 2, 2022, and concluded on March 2, 2023. Immunization session practices were evaluated as having poor vaccine and diluent management, fair cold chain management, communication with clients and caregivers, vaccine preparation and administration practices, and waste management practices. However, immunization session equipment availability, as well as card review and registration during immunization, received good evaluations. The overall assessment of immunization session practices was determined to be fair. In addition, the study identified significant associations between immunization practices and the number of non‑vaccinators working in the immunization unit (P=0.035), and the average number of daily vaccine recipients in primary healthcare centers (P=0.046). The immunization session practices achieved a fair level of assessment, The increased number of daily visitors to the immunization unit and the number of health workers who are non‑vaccinator in the unit affected negatively the immunization session practices.


primary health care; immunization; session; practices


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