Original Article

SARS‑CoV‑2 IgG antibody status in unvaccinated and 2‑dose vaccinated Indonesians by Astra Zeneca

Laura Yamani, Juniastuti Juniastuti, Ni L.A. Megasari, Takako Utsumi, Nur Sahila, Alifia S. Pangestika, Serius M.D. Putri, Chung Yi Li, Santi Martini, Muhammad A. Isfandiari, Maria I. Lusida
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 14, No 12 | a29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2697 | © 2024 Laura Yamani, Juniastuti Juniastuti, Ni L.A. Megasari, Takako Utsumi, Nur Sahila, Alifia S. Pangestika, Serius M.D. Putri, Chung Yi Li, Santi Martini, Muhammad A. Isfandiari, Maria I. Lusida | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 13 March 2024 | Published: 30 December 2023

About the author(s)

Laura Yamani, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia
Juniastuti Juniastuti, Research Center on Global Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya Indonesia; and, Indonesia-Japan Collaborative Research Center for Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya Indonesia; and, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Ni L.A. Megasari, Indonesia-Japan Collaborative Research Center for Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya Indonesia; and, Immunology Study Program, Postgraduate School, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Takako Utsumi, Indonesia-Japan Collaborative Research Center for Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Nur Sahila, Department Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Alifia S. Pangestika, Department Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Serius M.D. Putri, Research Center on Global Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Chung Yi Li, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Santi Martini, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Population Studies, and Health Promotion, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Muhammad A. Isfandiari, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Population Studies, and Health Promotion, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Maria I. Lusida, Research Center on Global Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya Indonesia; and, Indonesia-Japan Collaborative Research Center for Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya Indonesia; and, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

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Abstract

Indonesia began deploying a COVID‑19 vaccine in January 2021, prioritising vaccination for high‑risk groups such as healthcare workers, the elderly and those with comorbidi‑ ties, and ending with the general public due to limited vaccine availability. Our study aimed to evaluate antibody response in Indonesians who had received two doses of the vaccine vs. those who had not. The study design was a cohort study involving 46 unvaccinated people and 23 people who had received the second dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine in three months. Methods used for the qualitative and quantitative detection of IgG antibodies included rapid RI‑GHA and ELISA tests. Findings showed that positive IgG antibodies qualitatively detected by the rapid RI‑GHA test were significantly higher in those vaccinated (60.9%) than in unvaccinated people (26.1%). Using the ELISA assay, all vaccinated individuals qualitatively showed positive antibodies (cut‑off ≥4.33 BAU/ml), and the average quantitative titer of anti‑SARS‑CoV‑2 s‑RBD IgG was significantly higher in vaccinated (157.06±238.68 BAU/ml) than in unvaccinated (51.90±87.60 BAU/ml) individuals. Some unvaccinated individuals with no history of infection were found to have anti‑SARS‑CoV‑2 antibodies that may have been previously asymptomatic, although their mean antibody titers were certainly lower than those in the 2‑dose group. Approximately 56% of vaccinated individuals had antibody titers above 60 BAU/ml as a cut‑off for protective threshold, a significantly higher proportion than unvaccinated individuals. In conclusion, vaccination with two doses AstraZeneca increased anti‑SARS‑CoV‑2 antibodies which resulted in enhanced immunity against symptomatic COVID‑19.

Keywords

SARS‑CoV‑2; vaccine; antibodies; ELISA; rapid test

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