Original Research

Trend and enhanced surveillance of Monkeypox during COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria

Lateefat K. Amao, David I. Olatunji, Gordon Igbodo, Solomon C. Okoli, Ifeanyichukwu Amaechi, Muhammad I. Goni, Odianosen Ehiakhamen, Olaolu Aderinola, Adesola Ogunleye, Oladipo Ogunbode, Adesola Adeleye, Tajudeen Arowolo, Kabiru Suleman, Abubakar Hassan, Mohammed U, Yelwa, Nsikak Inam, Afolabi Akinpelu, Fahad Muhammad, Kola Jinadu, Ikenna Onoh, Jessica Akinrogbe, Elsie Ilori, Abaye Biobelu, Ikwuogu Richard, Ifeoma Nwadiuto, Oyaba Diemebonso, Ogbue Nwakaego, Emmanuel Owhodar, John Oladejo, Evaezi Okpokoro, Chikwe Ihekweazu
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 13, No 1 | a401 | | © 2024 Lateefat K. Amao, David I. Olatunji, Gordon Igbodo, Solomon C. Okoli, Ifeanyichukwu Amaechi, Muhammad I. Goni, Odianosen Ehiakhamen, Olaolu Aderinola, Adesola Ogunleye, Oladipo Ogunbode, Adesola Adeleye, Tajudeen Arowolo, Kabiru Suleman, Abubakar Hassan, Mohammed U, Yelwa, Nsikak Inam, Afolabi Akinpelu, Fahad Muhammad, Kola Jinadu, Ikenna Onoh, Jessica Akinrogbe, Elsie Ilori, Abaye Biobelu, Ikwuogu Richard, Ifeoma Nwadiuto, Oyaba Diemebonso, Ogbue Nwakaego, Emmanuel Owhodar, John Oladejo, Evaezi Okpokoro, Chikwe Ihekweazu | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 10 April 2024 | Published: 24 May 2022

About the author(s)

Lateefat K. Amao, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
David I. Olatunji, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Gordon Igbodo, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Solomon C. Okoli, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Abuja, Nigeria
Ifeanyichukwu Amaechi, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Muhammad I. Goni, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Odianosen Ehiakhamen, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Olaolu Aderinola, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Adesola Ogunleye, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Oladipo Ogunbode, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Adesola Adeleye, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Tajudeen Arowolo, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Kabiru Suleman, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Abubakar Hassan, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Mohammed U, Yelwa, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Nsikak Inam, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Afolabi Akinpelu, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Fahad Muhammad, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Kola Jinadu, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Ikenna Onoh, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Jessica Akinrogbe, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Elsie Ilori, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Abaye Biobelu, Bayelsa State Ministry of Health, Yenegoa, Nigeria
Ikwuogu Richard, Delta State Ministry of Health, Asaba, Nigeria
Ifeoma Nwadiuto, Rivers State Ministry of Health, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Oyaba Diemebonso, Bayelsa State Ministry of Health, Yenegoa, Nigeria
Ogbue Nwakaego, Delta State Ministry of Health, Asaba, Nigeria
Emmanuel Owhodar, Rivers State Ministry of Health, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
John Oladejo, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria
Evaezi Okpokoro, International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology, Abuja, Nigeria
Chikwe Ihekweazu, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria

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Abstract

Monkeypox (MPX) is a viral zoonosis with lesions like smallpox. Though rare in Nigeria, sporadic outbreaks have been reported in 17 states since September 2017. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic has further reduced surveillance and reporting of MPX disease. This study seeks to assess the effect of an enhanced surveillance approach to detect MPX cases and measure the cumulative incidence of MPX in priority states in Nigeria. We identified three priority states (Rivers, Delta and Bayelsa) and their Local Government Areas (LGAs) based on previous disease incidence. We also identified, trained, and incentivized community volunteers to conduct active case searches over three months (January to March 2021). We supported case investigation of suspected cases and followed up on cases in addition to routine active surveillance for MPX in health facilities and communities. Weekly and monthly follow-up was carried out during the same period. Out of the three states, 30 hotspots LGAs out of the 56 LGAs (54%) were engaged for enhanced surveillance. We trained three state supervisors, 30 LGA surveillance facilitators and 600 Community informants across the three priority states. Overall, twenty-five (25) suspected cases of MPX were identified. Out of these, three (12%) were confirmed as positive. Enhanced surveillance improved reporting of MPX diseases in hotspots LGAs across the priority states. Extension of this surveillance approach alongside tailored technical support is critical intra and post-pandemic.

Keywords

Monkeypox; COVID-19; zoonosis; enhanced surveillance; Nigeria

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