Original Research

High seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the capital of Chad

Andrillene Laure Deutou Wondeu, Fatima Abdelrazakh, Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Fissou Henry Yandai, Aleyo Zita Nodjikouambaye, Djallaye Djimtoibaye, Pidou Kimala, Noel Nadjiadjim, Nathan Naïbeï, Guy Rodrigue Takoudjou Dzomo, Sabrina Atturo, Giulia Linardos, Cristina Russo Russo, Carlo Federico Perno, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Allarangar Yokouide, Hyppolite Kuekou Tchidjou, Vittorio Colizzi, Ouchemi Choua
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 13, No 4 | a405 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2022.2255 | © 2024 Andrillene Laure Deutou Wondeu, Fatima Abdelrazakh, Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Fissou Henry Yandai, Aleyo Zita Nodjikouambaye, Djallaye Djimtoibaye, Pidou Kimala, Noel Nadjiadjim, Nathan Naïbeï, Guy Rodrigue Takoudjou Dzomo, Sabrina Atturo, Giulia Linardos, Cristina Russo Russo, Carlo Federico Perno, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Allarangar Yokouide, Hyppolite Kuekou Tchidjou, Vittorio Colizzi, Ouchemi Choua | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 10 April 2024 | Published: 31 December 2022

About the author(s)

Andrillene Laure Deutou Wondeu, Major Tropical Epidemics Laboratory LAGET, Good Samaritan University Hospital Centre, N'Djamena, Chad; Lab. of Molecular Biology, Immunopathology, Evangelical University of Cameroon, Mbouo-Bandjoun, Cameroon; Dept. of Biology and Interdepartmental Centre for Comparative Medicine, University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Fatima Abdelrazakh, Livestock Research Institute for Development "IRED", N'Djamena
Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Livestock Research Institute for Development "IRED", N'Djamena, Chad
Fissou Henry Yandai, Livestock Research Institute for Development "IRED", N'Djamena, Chad
Aleyo Zita Nodjikouambaye, Major Tropical Epidemics Laboratory LAGET, Good Samaritan University Hospital Centre, N'Djamena, Chad
Djallaye Djimtoibaye, Major Tropical Epidemics Laboratory LAGET, Good Samaritan University Hospital Centre, N'Djamena, Chad
Pidou Kimala, Livestock Research Institute for Development "IRED", N'Djamena, Chad
Noel Nadjiadjim, National Coordination for a COVID-19 Response, N'Djamena, Chad
Nathan Naïbeï, Community of Friends of Computing for Development "CAID-Tchad", `N'Djamena, Chad
Guy Rodrigue Takoudjou Dzomo, Major Tropical Epidemics Laboratory LAGET, Good Samaritan University Hospital Centre, N'Djamena, Chad
Sabrina Atturo, Major Tropical Epidemics Laboratory LAGET, Good Samaritan University Hospital Centre, N'Djamena, Chad
Giulia Linardos, Virology and Mycobacteriology Unit, "Bambino Gesù" Children Hospital, Healthcare and Research Institute, Rome, Italy
Cristina Russo Russo, Virology and Mycobacteriology Unit, "Bambino Gesù" Children Hospital, Healthcare and Research Institute, Rome; Multimodal Medicine "Bambino Gesù" Children Hospital - Healthcare and Research Institute, Rome, Italy
Carlo Federico Perno, Multimodal Medicine "Bambino Gesù" Children Hospital - Healthcare and Research Institute, Rome, Italy
Ali Mahamat Moussa, National Coordination for a COVID-19 Response, N'Djamena, Chad
Allarangar Yokouide, National Coordination for a COVID-19 Response, N'Djamena, Chad
Hyppolite Kuekou Tchidjou, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Amiens, France
Vittorio Colizzi, Major Tropical Epidemics Laboratory LAGET, Good Samaritan University Hospital Centre, N'Djamena, Chad; Lab. of Molecular Biology, Immunopathology, Evangelical University of Cameroon, Mbouo-Bandjoun, Cameroon; Dept. of Biology and Interdepartmental Centre for Comparative Medicine, University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Ouchemi Choua, National Coordination for a COVID-19 Response, N'Djamena, Chad

Abstract

Background. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Chad has had 7,417 confirmed cases and 193 deaths, one of the lowest in Africa.

Objective. This study assessed SARS-CoV-2 immunity in N’Djamena.

Methods. In August-October 2021, eleven N’Djamena hospitals collected outpatient data and samples. IgG antibodies against SARSCoV- 2 nucleocapsid protein were identified using ELISA. “Bambino Gesù” Laboratory, Rome, Italy, performed external quality control with chemiluminescence assay. Results. 25-34-year-old (35.2%) made up the largest age group at 31.9 12.6 years. 56.4% were women, 1.3 women/men. The 7th district had 22.5% and the 1st 22.3%. Housewives and students dominated. Overall seroprevalence was 69.5% (95% CI: 67.7-71.3), females 68.2% (65.8-70.5) and males 71.2% (68.6-73.8). >44-year-old had 73.9% seroprevalence. Under-15s were 57.4% positive. Housewives (70.9%), civil servants (71.5%), and health workers (9.7%) had the highest antibody positivity. N’Djamena’s 9th district had 73.1% optimism and the 3rd district had 52.5%. Seroprevalences were highest at Good Samaritan Hospital (75.4%) and National General Referral Hospital (74.7%).

Conclusion. Our findings indicate a high circulation of SARSCoV- 2 in N’Djamena, despite low mortality and morbidity after the first two COVID-19 pandemic waves. This high seroprevalence must be considered in Chad’s vaccine policy.


Keywords

COVID-19; Seroprevalence; SARS-CoV-2; Anti nucleocapsid antibodies; N’Djamena

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