Review Article

Exploring NFkB pathway as a potent strategy to mitigate COVID-19 severe morbidity and mortality

Mubarak Muhammad, Tasneem M. Hassan, Sani S. Baba, Mustapha I. Radda, Mubarak M. Mutawakkil, Majida A. Musa, Sazaly AbuBakar, Shih Keng Loong, Ibrahim Yusuf
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 13, No 3 | a420 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2022.1679 | © 2024 Mubarak Muhammad, Tasneem M. Hassan, Sani S. Baba, Mustapha I. Radda, Mubarak M. Mutawakkil, Majida A. Musa, Sazaly AbuBakar, Shih Keng Loong, Ibrahim Yusuf | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 11 April 2024 | Published: 07 September 2022

About the author(s)

Mubarak Muhammad, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Tasneem M. Hassan, Department of Physiotherapy, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Sani S. Baba, Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
Mustapha I. Radda, Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
Mubarak M. Mutawakkil, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
Majida A. Musa, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
Sazaly AbuBakar, Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre, Higher Institution Centre of Excellence, Universiti of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Shih Keng Loong, Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre, Higher Institution Centre of Excellence, Universiti of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Ibrahim Yusuf, Department of Pathology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

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Abstract

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), for which there does not appear to be an approved cure, the primary treatment options consist of non-pharmacological preventive measures and supportive treatment that are aimed at halting the progression of the disease. Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) presents a promising therapeutic opportunity to mitigate COVID-19-induced cytokine storm and reduce the risk of severe morbidity and mortality resulting from the disease. However, the effective clinical application of NFkB modulators in COVID-19 is hampered by a number of factors that must be taken into consideration. This paper therefore explored the modulation of the NFB pathway as a potential strategy to mitigate the severe morbidity and mortality caused by COVID-19. The paper also discusses the factors that form the barrier, and it offers potential solutions to the various limitations that may impede the clinical use of NFkB modulators against COVID-19. This paper revealed and identified three key potential solutions for the future clinical use of NFkB modulators against COVID-19. These solutions are pulmonary tissue-specific NFkB blockade, agents that target common regulatory proteins of both canonical and non-canonical NFkB pathways, and monitoring clinical indicators of hyperinflammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19 prior to using NFkB modulators.


Keywords

COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; NFkB; cytokine storm

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