Original Article

Blindness above and below the Poverty Line: Reflections form Sofala, Mozambique

Assegid A. Roba, Margarida Chagunda, Tiago S. Machissa
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 11, No 1 | a541 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2020.1113 | © 2024 Assegid A. Roba, Margarida Chagunda, Tiago S. Machissa | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 23 April 2024 | Published: 29 April 2020

About the author(s)

Assegid A. Roba, Grady Health System, Atlanta, United States
Margarida Chagunda, Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo, Mozambique
Tiago S. Machissa, Beira Central Hospital, Beira, Mozambique

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Although the correlation between visual impairment and poverty has been established, economic assessment is not a standard component of blindness surveys. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of avoidable blindness and its association with poverty in Sofala province of Mozambique. As part of a Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness, 94% of a random sample of 3600 people >50 years responded to questions regarding daily per capita expenditure. The WHO definition of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) was used to determine the visual status of participants, and the World Bank’s threshold of living on <$1.25 International Dollar a day demarcated the poverty line. The prevalence of blindness was 3.2% [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.6, 3.8]. People living below the poverty line had significantly greater odds of being blind [Odds Ratio (OR): 2.6 (CI: 1.6 to 4.5)]. Age above 60 [OR: 7.0 [CI: 4.6 to 10.80] predicted blindness but the association with illiteracy, gender or rural residence was not significant. Blindness disproportionately affects people living below the poverty line. Development initiatives could augment the impact of blindness prevention programs. Measuring poverty should become a standard component of visual impairment surveys.


blindness; Mozambique; poverty; RAAB; visual impairment


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