Original Research

Protection level of anti-hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in a pediatric Cameroonian population

Merveille Kemenang, René G. Essomba, Aubin Nanfack, Paul F. Endja, Alexis Ndjolo, Céline N. Nkenfou
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 14, No 12 | a28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2247 | © 2024 Merveille Kemenang, René G. Essomba, Aubin Nanfack, Paul F. Endja, Alexis Ndjolo, Céline N. Nkenfou | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 13 March 2024 | Published: 30 December 2023

About the author(s)

Merveille Kemenang, School of Health Sciences, Catholic University of central Africa, Yaounde, Cameroon
René G. Essomba, School of Health Sciences, Catholic University of central Africa, Yaounde, Cameroon; and, National Laboratory of Public Health, Medical Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Yaounde, Cameroon
Aubin Nanfack, "Chantal Biya" International Reference Centre, Yaounde, Cameroon
Paul F. Endja, Dominican Hospital Saint Martin de Porres, Yaounde, Cameroon
Alexis Ndjolo, "Chantal Biya" International Reference Centre, Yaounde, Cameroon
Céline N. Nkenfou, “Chantal Biya” International Reference Centre, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biological Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon

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Abstract

Background: Background: Despite nearly twenty years of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B remains one of the most common viral infections worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission is a major route in children. Objective: to evaluate HBV-infected mothers’ children’s vaccination response. Methods: The Centre Hospitalier Dominicain St-Martin de Porres, Yaounde prenatal care (ANC) database included HBsAg-positive consenting women and their children. Social demographics were acquired using a tested questionnaire. The 5 hepatitis B indicators were evaluated and anti-HBsAg antibodies quantified by indirect ELISA. Microsoft Excel and Epi-info was used to examine data. Results. Out of 5,996 women registered, 143 were HBsAg positive (2.38% prevalence) and none were HBeAg positive. Of 143 HBsAgpositive women, 50 participated in the study. Out of 50 positive moms, 78 children were included, with a mean age ± SD of 2.33 ± 2.86 years. None of the children were infected with HBV, but all were exposed. 64 (82.05%) received anti-HBs immunoglobulin (HBIG) and a vaccine at birth, while 14 (17.95%) received only the vaccine. 72 (92.31%) children received all three vaccination doses. The vaccine responders were 62.82% (above 10 IU/mL), while 37.18% of children were nonresponders, a greater risk group if not supplemented. Conclusion: This study found 92.31% child anti-HBV immunization coverage. WHO recommends 95% protection, but 62.82% is below that. The causes of this poor protection should be examined.

Keywords

Cameroon; pediatric patients; anti-hepatitis B; vaccines

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