Original Research

Body composition of type 2 diabetes patients in Uganda: A case-control study

Ronald Buyinza, Jonathan Nsamba, Anthony Muyingo, Nicholas Matovu, Gloria Nabirye, Adellah Kantengwa, Sandra Akandunda, Wenceslaus Sseguya, Elezebeth Mathews
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 14, No 1 | a292 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2249 | © 2024 Ronald Buyinza, Jonathan Nsamba, Anthony Muyingo, Nicholas Matovu, Gloria Nabirye, Adellah Kantengwa, Sandra Akandunda, Wenceslaus Sseguya, Elezebeth Mathews | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 08 April 2024 | Published: 27 January 2023

About the author(s)

Ronald Buyinza, Pharmacy Department, Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Mbarara, Uganda
Jonathan Nsamba, Department of Clinical Research, Jeuticals Research and Consulting (U) Ltd., Kampala, Uganda; Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Central University of Kerala, Periya, India
Anthony Muyingo, Diabetes Clinic, Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Mbarara, Uganda
Nicholas Matovu, Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Centre for Public Health, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom
Gloria Nabirye, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Busitema University, Busitema, Uganda
Adellah Kantengwa, Diabetes Clinic, Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Mbarara, Uganda
Sandra Akandunda, Diabetes Clinic, Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Mbarara, Uganda
Wenceslaus Sseguya, Diabetes Clinic, St. Francis Nsambya Hospital, Kampala, Uganda
Elezebeth Mathews, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Central University of Kerala, Periya, India

Abstract

Introduction: The prevalence of obesity among people diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has been widely documented. However, the specific composition of this body weight remains largely unknown. The study aimed to understand the body composition of T2DM patients using the bioelectric impedance analysis technique, comparing findings to sex and age-matched controls. 

Materials and Methods:  A comparative case-control study was carried out among 139 known cases of Type 2 diabetes aged 18 to 78 years randomly sampled from the diabetic clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. We matched them to 139 hospital controls who were healthy non-diabetic attendants. Body composition parameters were computed and summarized as medians and interquartile ranges. Differences in the medians of body composition parameters were further assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Fat-free and fat mass indices were derived to offer a precise estimation of body composition parameters adjusted for height differences among study participants.

Results: Cases had significantly higher median systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR), total fat percentage, fat mass amount, Fat Mass Index, visceral fat, and metabolic age than their counterparts, whereas controls had significantly higher median total body water percentage versus cases. The highest significant differences occurred in fat percentage composition (Cases: β: 6.9 (95% C.I: 4.4, 9.4); Controls: Ref) followed by visceral fat (Cases: β: 3.5 (95% C.I: 2.5, 4.4); controls: Ref) and Fat Mass Index (Cases: 95% C.I: 2.6 (95% C.I: 1.6, 3.7). Cases had significantly higher Fat Mass Index, visceral fat and fat percentage (all p<0.05) than controls.

Conclusions: Routine assessment of body composition of T2DM patients needs to be done to assess the amount, type and pattern of weight gain to prevent increases in adiposity.


Keywords

Diabetes; Uganda; Bioelectric impedance analysis; fat mass

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