Original Research

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in secondary school student population in the city of Douala, Cameroon

Nadine Bilog, Elysée C.B. Lele, Jerson M. Ndongo, Yves J.M. Biloa, Josiane B.N. Bwegne, Peguy B.A. Ndemba, Noël B. Etaga, Samuel H. Mandengue, Laurent S.E. Ngoa, Abdou Temfemo, Bienvenu Bongue, Jessica Guyot, Clarisse N.A. Ayina
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 14, No 11 | a55 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2465 | © 2024 Nadine Bilog, Elysée C.B. Lele, Jerson M. Ndongo, Yves J.M. Biloa, Josiane B.N. Bwegne, Peguy B.A. Ndemba, Noël B. Etaga, Samuel H. Mandengue, Laurent S.E. Ngoa, Abdou Temfemo, Bienvenu Bongue, Jessica Guyot, Clarisse N.A. Ayina | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 March 2024 | Published: 30 November 2023

About the author(s)

Nadine Bilog, Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala; Physiology and Medicine of Physical Activities and Sports Unit, University of Douala, Cameroon
Elysée C.B. Lele, Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala; Physiology and Medicine of Physical Activities and Sports Unit, University of Douala, Cameroon
Jerson M. Ndongo, Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala; Physiology and Medicine of Physical Activities and Sports Unit, University of Douala, Cameroon
Yves J.M. Biloa, Sainbiose Inserm U1059 Laboratory, Jean Monnet University, Saint‑Étienne, France
Josiane B.N. Bwegne, Physiology and Medicine of Physical Activities and Sports Unit, University of Douala, Cameroon
Peguy B.A. Ndemba, Physiology and Medicine of Physical Activities and Sports Unit, University of Douala; Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde, Cameroon
Noël B. Etaga, Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala; Physiology and Medicine of Physical Activities and Sports Unit, University of Douala, Cameroon
Samuel H. Mandengue, Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala; Physiology and Medicine of Physical Activities and Sports Unit, University of Douala, Cameroon
Laurent S.E. Ngoa, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde, Cameroon
Abdou Temfemo, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Cameroon
Bienvenu Bongue, Sainbiose Inserm U1059 Laboratory, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Étienne, France
Jessica Guyot, Sainbiose Inserm U1059 Laboratory, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Étienne, France
Clarisse N.A. Ayina, Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala; Physiology and Medicine of Physical Activities and Sports Unit, University of Douala, Cameroon

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Abstract

While the burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS)is still increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a lack of data among young Cameroonian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among secondary school students in Douala.This was a cross-sectional prospective study carried out on 803 students recruited from February to May 2021 in public and private secondary schools in Douala city, Cameroon. MetS was assessed according to the IDF/AHA/NHLBI 2009 consensus definition. The data collection consisted of a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, measurement of anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body massindex (BMI), waist circumference) and overnight fasting blood sample. Blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose,HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured using standard methods. The mean age was 18±3 years, 73.3% female. The prevalence of MetS was 27.4%, common among participants aged ≥16 years, and higher in females compare to males (33.7% vs. 11.1%, P<0.0001). The prevalence of MetS components i.e abdominal obesity, high BP, fasting hyperglycemia, low-level HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia were 14.1, 18.1, 42.8, 51.4 and 38.6% respectively. All MetS components were significantly higher in females compared to males except for high BP which was similar among the genders. In our study population, the prevalence of MetS is high and this calls for improved monitoring to limit the evolution of associated cardiometabolic complications among young Cameroonians.

Keywords

metabolic syndrome; prevalence; secondary school; Cameroon

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