Original Research

Human papillomavirus positivity and cervical lesions in relation to HIV infection: a comparative assessment in the Cameroonian female population

Samuel M. Sosso, Michel C.T. Tchouaket, Joseph Fokam, Rachel K. Simo, Ezechiel N.J. Semengue, Zacharie Sando, Judith Torimiro, Aline Tiga, Elise E. Lobe, Georgia Ambada, Achille Nange, Alex D. Nka, Collins Chenwi, Aissatou Abba, Aude C. Ka’e, Nadine Fainguem, Marie K.N. Zam, Bouba Yagai, Serge C. Billong, Vittorio Colizzi, Alexis Ndjolo
Journal of Public Health in Africa | Vol 14, No 10 | a72 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2334 | © 2024 Samuel M. Sosso, Michel C.T. Tchouaket, Joseph Fokam, Rachel K. Simo, Ezechiel N.J. Semengue, Zacharie Sando, Judith Torimiro, Aline Tiga, Elise E. Lobe, Georgia Ambada, Achille Nange, Alex D. Nka, Collins Chenwi, Aissatou Abba, Aude C. Ka’e, Nadine Fainguem, Marie K.N. Zam, Bouba Yagai, Serge C. Billong, Vittorio Colizzi, Alexis Ndjolo | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 18 March 2024 | Published: 30 October 2023

About the author(s)

Samuel M. Sosso, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon
Michel C.T. Tchouaket, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Joseph Fokam, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS prevention and management (CIRCB), Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; and, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon; and, School of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Central Africa, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Rachel K. Simo, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon
Ezechiel N.J. Semengue, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy
Zacharie Sando, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon; and, Gyneco-obstetrical and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon
Judith Torimiro, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
Aline Tiga, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon
Elise E. Lobe, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon
Georgia Ambada, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon
Achille Nange, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon
Alex D. Nka, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy; and, Evangelical University of Bandjoun, Cameroon
Collins Chenwi, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
Aissatou Abba, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon
Aude C. Ka’e, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon
Nadine Fainguem, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy; and, Evangelical University of Bandjoun, Cameroon
Marie K.N. Zam, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
Bouba Yagai, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy
Serge C. Billong, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon; and, Central Technical Group, National AIDS Control Committee, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Vittorio Colizzi, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy; and, Evangelical University of Bandjoun, Cameroon
Alexis Ndjolo, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB),Yaoundé, Cameroon; and, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon

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Abstract

Cervical lesions, induced by high-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), in the context of HIV remains a global health challenge. We determined the effect of HR-HPV on the development of cervical lesions in women with and without HIV infection. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 257 women living in Cameroon. HIV serology, HR-HPV genotyping and cervico-vaginal smear (CVS) were performed for all participants; among those declared HIV positive, plasma HIV viral load and CD4 count were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using Graph Pad version 6.0; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the participants in our study was 37±6.5 years. According to HIV serology, 184 (71.59%) were HIV‑positive vs. 73 (28.40%) HIV‑negative. Among the HIV‑positive women, the median CD4 count was 438 [IQR: 317‑597] cells/mm3 and the median viremia was <40 [IQR:<40‑2318] copies/ml. After successful genotyping, the prevalence of HR‑HPV was 36.32% (73/201), with a significantly higher proportion in HIV‑infected individuals (41.98% (55/131) vs. 25.71% (18/70); P=0.02; OR=2.1). The overall rate of cervical lesions was 23.34% (60/257), with a non‑significantly higher proportion in HIV‑infected participants (25.00%(46/184) vs. 19.17% (14/73); P=0.31). Relevantly, the presence of HR‑HPV was significantly associated with cervical lesions (P<0.0001; OR=5.07), with a higher odds of cervical lesion in HIV‑positive individuals (P<0.0001 and OR=5.67) compared to HIV‑negative individuals (P=0.03 and OR=3.83). Although oncogenic HPV appears to be an independent factor in the development of cervical lesions, this study reveals higher odds of cervical lesions among HIV/HPV co-infection than in HPV infection alone.

Keywords

CVS; HR-HPV; HIV; Cameroon

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