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Medication adherence still ranks as a big challenge for clinicians and health workers. Based on a social learning theoretical framework, this study explores the adoption of patient adherence, medication adherence as a catalyst for improving the health and quality of life of individuals in Nigeria. Structural Equation Modelling technique was used to analyze the empirical data obtained. SLT variables including self-efficacy and outcome expectation were tested against medication adherence behavior. The constructs are related and positively correlated except definition which is contrary to previous researches. The research discusses these findings while also highlighting the implications for practice and policy.